Society for the Teaching of Psychology: Division 2 of the American Psychological Association

Racial/Ethnic Issues


Bemak, F. P., & Chung, R. C. (Eds.). (2000). Psychological intervention with immigrants and refugees. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

This book examines stages that immigrants and refugees undergo, both premigration and postmigration. Suggestions are made for culturally responsive psychotherapy for these groups.

Cabrera, N. J., Villarruel, F. A., & Fitzgerald, H. E. (Eds.). (2011). Latina and Latino children’s mental health. Westport, CT: Praeger.

This two-volume resource includes information on physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that impact healthy development in Latino American children.

Chin, J. L. (Ed.). (2004). The psychology of prejudice and discrimination. Vol. 1: Racism in America. Westport, CT: Praeger.

This edited book contains 10 chapters that deal with a broad range of racism. Chapters include a case example of healing after a race riot, racism among children, racism in American politics, aversive racism, coping with racism, and what psychologists can do in the United Nations.

Chin, J. L. (Ed.). (2004). The psychology of prejudice and discrimination. Vol. 2: Ethnicity and multiracial identity. Westport, CT: Praeger.

This edited volume contains 8 chapters that deal with racial identity, including skin color, Asian identity, immigrant identity, and multiple minority status individuals.

Chin, J. L. (Ed.). (2004). The psychology of prejudice and discrimination. Vol. 3: Bias based on gender and sexual orientation. Westport, CT: Praeger.

This 10-chapter edited book contains chapters on topics such as gender bias; mothers who work outside of the home versus stay-at-home mothers; gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and queer youths; and coping with sexual prejudice and discrimination.

Chin, J. L. (Ed.). (2004). The psychology of prejudice and discrimination. Vol. 4: Disability, religion, physique, and other traits. Westport, CT: Praeger.

This 10-chapter edited book contains chapters on topics such as spiritual diversity, people with disabilities, social class and disabilities, weight, and diversity as the norm.

Comas-Díaz, L., & Greene, B. (Eds.). (1994). Women of color: Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy. New York: Guilford.

This edited book contains 17 chapters that discuss many of the important issues related to therapy with Women of Color. Besides chapters on the main racial/ethnic groups, chapter topics include West Indian women, major theories of psychotherapy with Women of Color, psychopharmacology, professional Women of Color, lesbian Women of Color, battered women, and mixed-race women.

Duran, E. (2006). Healing the soul wound: Counseling with American Indians and other Native Peoples. New York: Teachers College Press.

This book discusses issues that relate to conducting therapy with American Indian populations. It discusses American Indian values and how Western culture has disrupted the American Indian sense of connection with the land and its spirits. Mental health problems are characterized as spirits visiting the individual instead of being part of the individual.

Draguns, J. G. (Ed.). (2000). Psychopathology and ethnicity. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Assesses the role of ethnocultural influences upon the symptoms and manifestations of mental disorders. The scope of this undertaking is restricted to the patterns of distress and disability as defined by the American Psychiatric Association (1994) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM–IV). Furthermore, this chapter will be focused upon the ethnic and cultural diversity of the United States and will concentrate on the principal cultural and ethnic groupings in the United States, as recognized by public policy. Specifically, the following racial and/or ethnic groups are considered: African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians.

Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1989). Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

This 12-chapter edited book contains chapters on topics such as assessment, separate chapters on children and adolescents from various racial/ethnic groups, Asian refugee children and adolescents, and biracial adolescents.

Gillem, A. R., & Thompson, C. A. (Eds.). (2004). Biracial women in therapy: Between the rock of gender and the hard place of race. New York, NY: Haworth Press.

This edited book examines issues involving biracial women. Some of the chapters involve unique issues that biracial women experience, while other chapters examine the connections with biracial men. Some of these women encounter unsupportive or non-supportive communities, and authors examine the processes through which these women must travel.

Gopaul-McNicol, S.-a. (1998). Cross-cultural practice: Assessment, treatment, and training. New York: Wiley.

This book discusses assessment of children, parenting, and couples, treatment issues with diverse clients, and training issues, such as training programs and conducting cross-cultural supervision.

Gopaul-McNicol., S.-a., & Thomas-Presswood, T. (1998). Working with linguistically and culturally different children: Innovative clinical and educational approaches. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

This book focuses on treatment issues with diverse language children, including assessment of intelligence, personality assessment, and teaching issues, along with best practices in treatment, training, and research.

Guthrie, R. V. (1998). Even the rat was white (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

This is the second edition to the classic first edition. The author points out how ethnic minorities have been systematically excluded from the psychological literature, ironically pointing out that we even use white rats in our psychology experiments.

Helms, J. E. (1992). A race is a nice thing to have: A guide to being a white person or understanding the white persons in your life. Topeka, KS: Content Communications.

This book examines the importance of race. It was written particularly for White individuals to help them understand that the issue of race should not be ignored because it has important implications for both Whites and Blacks in this country.

Hoffman, A. (1990). Lost in translation. New York: Viking.

Alice Hoffman’s memoir provides a very compelling narrative of her transition from Poland to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. She discusses her struggles with the pressures to assimilate and to adopt a new culture, language, and emotional framework.

Jones, J. M. (1997). Prejudice and racism (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

This is the second edition to the classic first edition first published in 1986. The author discusses psychological conceptions of racism and related topics, discussing the modern forms that these issues take.

Kiselica, M. S. (1998). Confronting prejudice and racism during multicultural training. Alexandria, VA: American Psychological Association.

This edited book discusses various types of reactions frequently seen in multicultural training and provides strategies for increasing students’ ability to benefit from training.

Kuba, S. A., & Bluestone, H. (2002). Integrating diversity content across the curriculum: Evaluation in a clinical graduate program. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

This book presents an examination of the effectiveness of multicultural training in graduate programs. It presents a model for how graduate psychology programs can integrate multicultural issues throughout their curriculum.

Landrine, H. (Ed.). (1995). Bringing cultural diversity to feminist psychology: Theory, research, and practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

This edited book contains 16 chapters dealing with diversity and feminism. Chapters include topics such as theoretical issues, socialization of girls, supervision from an antiracist and feminist perspective, sexual harassment, Women of Color, health, and language.

Locke, D. C. (1992). Increasing multicultural understanding: A comprehensive model. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

This book introduces a model for general multicultural understanding.

Malcolm, D. (2005). A whole new ball game: A close-up look at diversity, racism, sexism, affirmative action, cultural pluralism and the unfinished business remaining in twenty-first century. Fairfield, CT. Aslan Publishing.

The author discusses his personal journey in understanding all aspects of “-isms” and how these relate to oppression. He challenges readers to enter into difficult dialogues for the purpose of personal growth.

Mio, J. S., Trimble, J. E., Arredondo, P., Sue, D., & Cheatham, H. E. (Eds.). (1999). Key words in multicultural interventions: A dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

This is the first-ever complete dictionary of multicultural psychology terms. Leaders in the field of multicultural psychology have defined or asked colleagues and associates to define most of the key terms used in the multicultural literature.

Mio, J. S., & Awakuni, G. I. (2000). Resistance to multiculturalism: Issues and interventions. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel.

This book is designed for those who teach multicultural psychology. It discusses historical resistances to multicultural psychology and offers suggestions on how to overcome some of these resistances.

Murphy-Shigemastsu, S. (2002). Multicultural encounters. New York: Teachers College Press.

A book written by a biracial (Japanese–White) author that discusses the complexity of being biracial in the United States.

Neville, H. A., Tynes, B. M., & Utsey, S. O. (2009). Handbook of African American psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This handbook addresses theoretical, empirical, and practical issues central to African American psychology including Africentric personality theories, religion and spirituality, Black families, media portrayals, racism and resistance, educational issues, group identity, physical and mental health, and therapeutic interventions.

Nakayama, T. K., & Martin, J. N. (Eds.). (1999). Whiteness: The communication of social identity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This is an edited book that discusses issues of White privilege. Many chapters discuss how this power is a social construction, much as race itself is a social construction.

Okun, B. F., Fried, J., & Okun, M. L. (1999). Understanding diversity: A learning-as-practice primer. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

This book discusses many of the basic issues relevant to diversity, such as self-awareness, nonverbal communication, and emotional expression.

Parham, T. A., Ajamu, A., &  White, J. L. (2010). The psychology of Blacks: Centering our perspectives in the African consciousness (4rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Presents the limitations of traditional psychological theories and approaches when applied to people of African descent and stresses the importance of the African Centered Perspective in terms of understanding the African American family, identity development, and mental health. 

Pedersen, P. (1988). A handbook for developing multicultural awareness. Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development.

This book proposes a detailed exercise to help develop multicultural awareness by having people role play intercultural situations while having others verbalizing attitudes and fears of those who are playing the protagonists in the interactions.

Pedersen, P. (Ed.). (1999). Multiculturalism as a fourth force. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel.

This edited book presents multicultural psychology as the fourth force in the history of psychology, behind psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanism.

Perea, J. F. (2007). Race and races: Cases and resources for a diverse America.  American casebook series. St. Paul, MN: Thomson/West.

This book provides detailed case studies addressing current perspectives on issues of race, including the treatment of Muslims and Arabs in post 9/11 USA.  

Rastogi, M., & Wieling, E. (2004). Voices of Color: First-person accounts of ethnic minority therapists. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This edited book provides narratives from therapists of color describing their insights and encounters with multicultural issues within the context of counseling and therapy.

Sapphire. (1997). PUSH. New York: Random House.

A personal story of an African American woman from Harlem who struggled with racial identity, obesity, and incest. Sapphire also offers a critique of teachers and psychologists who pretend to act professionally while reacting to her in racially biased ways.

Spicer, P., Farrell, P., Sarche, M. C., & Fitzgerald, H. E. (Eds.). (2011). American Indian and Alaska Native children and mental health: Development, context, prevention, and treatment. Westport, CT: Praeger.

This edited volume includes chapters on the mental health challenges of American Indian and Alaska Native children such as historical trauma, economic conditions, fetal alcohol spectrum, and ethnic identity development. Chapters also address intervention strategies and resources within families and communities.

Tatum, B. D. (1997). “Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?” and other conversations about race. New York: Basic Books.

This is a classic book that discusses issues of race within a Black–White context, looking at Blackness in a White context and Whiteness in a White context.

Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview.

This classic book summarizes the research on individualism and collectivism up to the date of publication. One element that is often overlooked is the horizontal–vertical dimension crossed with individualism and collectivism.

Villarruel, F. A., Carlo, G., & Grau, J. M. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of U. S. Latino psychology: Developmental and community-based perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chapters address culturally competent interventions and research for specific Latino/a populations and treatment issues.

Walker, M. (Ed.). (2004). Race, self, and society: Relational challenges in a culture of disconnection. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

This book examines relational-cultural theory (RCT) to understand relationships among women of different races and ethnicities in the United States. While some individual women may build bridges to one another, we still have not solved the problem of bridging across races.

Watson, L. W., Terrell, M. C., Wright, D. J., Bonner, F. & Cuyjet, M. (2002). How minority students experience college: Implications for planning and policy. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.

These authors examined Students of Color at seven different liberal arts colleges and universities. They examined how these students experienced their colleges, how they characterized these experiences, what the campus climates were, and how their respective racial identities interacted with their college experiences. Conclusions were based upon both quantitative and qualitative data.

Witko, T. (Ed.). (2006). Mental health care for urban Indians: Clinical insights from native practioners. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

This book is written by Native American scholars who work within the Native American communities. It provides a historical context of the impact of colonization on Native American culture. The repercussions related to urban migration and boarding schools on cultural identity, mental health care issues, and treatment are addressed by Native American practitioners.


Brislin, R. (2000). Understanding culture’s influence on behavior (2nd ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers.

This book presents many of the basic issues in multicultural psychology, with a special interest in sojourners and immigrants.

Brown, R. (2010). Prejudice: Its Social Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

This text provides a comprehensive overview of current research on prejudice including individual differences, stereotyping processes, the development of prejudice, intergroup relations, target’s perspective, and prejudice reduction.  Examples provide an international perspective.

Eysenck, M.W. (2004). Psychology: An international perspective. New York: Psychology Press.

This text is one of the few international psychology textbooks available for use in an introductory course. Chapters address biological psychology, cognitive psychology, individual differences, development, social psychology, and abnormal psychology with an emphasis on international research and culture as a factor in behavioral differences.

Gurin, P., Dey, E. L., Hurado, S. & Gurin, G. (2002). Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on educational outcomes. Harvard Educational Review, 72, 330–366.

The authors report data from two longitudinal studies demonstrating that experience with diversity, both in the classroom and in informal interactions, is consistently and positively related to learning outcomes such as a motivation to understand human behavior, a preference for complex rather than single explanations, and an increased tendency to think about underlying process. These relationships persisted, even when controlling for previous diversity experience.

Gurung, R. A. R. (2006). Health psychology: A cultural approach. San Francisco: Wadsworth.

This textbook weaves the general theories of health psychology using the fabric of culture and provides a review of the latest research in multicultural health disparities. Starting with a description of the biological, psychological, and sociological factors that determine who we are, the text examines cultural differences in major health behaviors, and health, achieving the commendable goal of being comprehensive yet extremely accessible.

Hall, G. C. N., & Barongan, C. (2002). Multicultural psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

This book is designed along the model of Sue and Sue (2003) and adapted for undergraduate use. It discusses basic concepts in the first half of the book, then discusses the four major identified racial/ethnic groups: African Americans, Asians, Latinos, and American Indians.

Helms, J. E., & Cook, D. A. (1999). Using race and culture in counseling and psychotherapy: Theory and practice. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

This book is also designed after the Sue and Sue (2003) book, but it emphasizes therapy and counseling among the four major identified groups.

Matsumoto, D. (2000). Culture and psychology: People around the world (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

This book discusses the major issues in multicultural psychology, paying particular attention to Matsumoto’s studies on emotional expression differences in cross-national studies.

Mio, J. S., Barker, L. A., & Tumambing, J. S. (2012). Multicultural psychology: Understanding our diverse communities (3rd. ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

The third edition of this text combines research findings with first person narratives to explore a wide array of topics in multicultural psychology.  Chapters address the function and nature of multicultural psychology; multicultural issues in research and testing; cultural differences in worldview; cultural differences in communication; immigrants, refugees, and the acculturation process; stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination, and racism;  cultural identity development; culture and health; culture and mental health; and multicultural competence.

Pedersen, P. B. & Carey, J. C. (Eds.). (2002). Multicultural counseling in the schools (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

This edited book presents information on multicultural efforts in K–12 education, including chapters on race/ethnicity, educational reform, immigrant students, and students with disabilities. It attempts to identify general principles of multicultural practice that apply across diverse groups.

Peters-Davis, N. & Shultz, J. (2005). Challenges of multicultural education: Teaching and taking diversity courses. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.

This book presents narratives from teachers and students in colleges on issues of multiculturalism. While many courses deal with issues of multiculturalism, few encourage open discussion of these issues. This book presents such open discussions, including those containing a great deal of emotion.

Rothenberg, P. S. (2009). Race, class, and gender in the United States: An integrated study (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.

This compilation of essays focuses on issues of identity and intergroup relations surrounding race, class, and gender as well as sexual orientation, religion, and disability. One section presents a legal/historical perspective to provide a context for current conditions.

Whitley, B. E., Jr., & Kite, M. E. (2010). The psychology of prejudice and discrimination (2nd ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

The book provides a research-based overview of the psychology factors influencing prejudice and discrimination. The topics covered include the measurement of prejudice, stereotyping processes, old-fashioned and contemporary prejudice, individual differences and prejudice, the development of prejudice in children, the social context of prejudice, the relation of prejudice to discrimination, the experience of discrimination, and reducing prejudice and discrimination. The book addresses not only racial/ethnic prejudice but also prejudice based on gender, sexual orientation, age, appearance, and disability.


Axelson, J. A. (1985). Counseling and development in a multicultural society. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

This book is designed after the Sue and Sue book, discussing major issues, then the major racial/ethnic groups.

Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R. (1992). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

This book was one of the first that compiled cross-cultural research in a single volume. Its focus is on international comparisons.

Comas-Díaz, L., & Griffith, E. E. H. (Eds.). (1988). Clinical guidelines in cross-cultural mental health. New York: Wiley.

This 13-chapter edited book concentrates on ethno-sociocultural factors such as immigration, religion, and politics, and practice with specific racial/ethnic groups.

Constantine, M. G., & Sue, D. W. (Eds.). (2005). Strategies for building multicultural competence in mental health and educational settings. New York: Wiley.

This book is the first to consciously emphasize the formal multicultural guidelines passed by the American Psychological Association in 2003. Thus, the chapters focus on the major areas of teaching, clinical training, research, and organizational change.

Fernando, S. (2010). Mental health, race, and culture (3rd ed.). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

The text addresses such topics as refugee mental health, cross-cultural perspectives on disorders and trauma, and race and racism in mental health care.

Ho, M. K. (1987). Family therapy with ethnic minorities. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

This book discusses general therapy with ethnic minority families, then it discusses family therapy with the four major racial/ethnic groups.

Jackson, L. M. (2011). The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

This book focuses on several new trends in social psychological theory and research on prejudice and social justice.  These include: essentialist and social constructivist approaches to understanding differences; evolutionary and intergroup explanations of prejudice; ideological systems and developmental theories; cognitive processes and social neuroscience; and links among prejudice, environmental issues, and speciesism.

Lonner, W. J., & Malpass, R. (Eds.). (1994). Psychology and culture.

This edited book contains 43 very brief chapters that discuss a wide range of topics related to multicultural psychology, including stereotyping, alcohol use, gender, learning styles, values, acculturative stress, sojourner issues, and health.

McAdoo, H. P. (Ed.). (1993). Family ethnicity: Strength in diversity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

This 21-chapter edited book discusses general issues in family therapy with ethnic minority populations, then has several chapters within the four major racial/ethnic groups and also includes family therapy with a Muslim family.

McGoldrick, M., Giordano, J., & Garcia-Preto, N. (Eds.). (2005). Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford.

This is the third edition of the first authors’ highly successful first and second editions (the second author has also been involved with the other two editions). It begins with a general chapter discussing some major issues in multicultural therapy, then it has the largest number of different groups in a single volume, discussing the four major racial/ethnic groups in more detail (e.g., different chapters on African American families, African American Muslim families, and African immigrant families, different chapters on Mexican families and Cuban families, different chapters on Korean families and Vietnamese families), and some groups that are not typically included, such as Jewish families, Arab families, Greek families, Irish families, and Scandinavian families.

Mio, J. S., & Iwamasa, G. Y. (Eds.). (2003). Culturally diverse mental health: The challenges of research and resistance. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

This book has three major sections: (a) historical resistances to multicultural issues, (b) conducting therapy with the four major racial/ethnic groups, and (c) conducting therapy with other populations of diversity (e.g., gender, LGB populations, aging, and spirituality).

Pedersen, P. (Ed.). (1985). Handbook of cross-cultural counseling and therapy. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

This edited book discussed many of the major issues in multicultural psychology with specific instructions to the authors to abide by a format suggested by the editor. However, this book was published before the explosion of interest in identity development.

Pedersen, P. B., Draguns, J. G., Lonner, W. J., & Trimble, J. E. (Eds.). (1996). Counseling across cultures (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This is the fourth edition of a classic book on conducting therapy with racial/ethnic populations. Besides chapters on the four major racial/ethnic groups, other topics include ethics in multicultural counseling, identity development, international students, and conducting therapy with refugees.

Ponterotto, J. G., Casas, J. M., Suzuki, L. A., & Alexander, C. M. (Eds.). (2001). Handbook of multicultural counseling (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This edited book is the second edition of the very successful first edition. It is really a compendium, as it is over 800 pages long. It presents the major issues in the multicultural literature.

Pope-Davis, D. B., & Coleman, H. L. K. (Eds.). (2001). The intersection of race, class, and gender in multicultural counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This edited book is the first of its kind in that it consciously addresses the many intersections in people’s lives (e.g., biracial individuals, Women of Color).

Ramirez, M., III. (1991). Psychotherapy and counseling with minorities: A cognitive approach to individual and cultural differences. New York: Pergamon.

This book presents a general model discussing the development of a multicultural perspective that includes self-actualization, adaptability to changing environments, the challenges of leadership, commitment to change, and getting the most out of life.

Sue, D. W., Carter, R. T., Casas, J. M., Fouad, N. A., Ivey, A. E., Jensen, M., et al. (1998). Multicultural counseling competencies: Individual and organizational development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This book is the immediate precursor to the Multicultural Competency Guidelines adopted by the American Psychological Association in 2003.

Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2012). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (6th ed.). New York: Wiley.

This expanded edition of this classic book provides an in-depth overview of multicultural counseling issues, including cultural competence, sociopolitical concerns, microaggressions, indigenous approaches, and social justice counseling.  Specific populations addressed include African Americans, American Indians and Alaskan Natives, Asian Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, persons of multiracial descent, Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, immigrants, refugees, sexual minorities, older adults, women, and people with disabilities.

Thomas, A. J., & Schwartzbaum, S. (2006). Culture and identity: Life stories for counselors and therapists. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This book provides a collection of autobiographical stories that explore themes of race/ethnicity, immigration/acculturation, religion, and social class. Each chapter contains a discussion of content themes, along with clinical applications, assessment questions, techniques, and interventions, as well as personal reactions evoked from the stories.

Tropp, L. R., & Mallett, R. K. (2011). Moving beyond prejudice reduction: Pathways to positive intergroup relations. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

This edited volume focuses on proactive intergroup strategies that move beyond prejudice reduction, including new approaches to conceptualizing and measuring intergroup attitudes.  Chapters address the role of forgiveness, reparation, and reconciliation with applications to Arab-Israeli relations, Northern Ireland, South Africa, and Post-Pinochet Chile.

Tuckwell, G. (2002). Racial identity: White counselors and therapists. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

A textbook written from a United Kingdom context but also relevant to the United States. It is primarily written for White graduate students being exposed to issues of multicultural psychology for the first time.

Vargas, L. A., & Koss-Chioino, J. D. (Eds.). (1992). Working with culture: Psychotherapeutic interventions with ethnic minority children and adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

This edited book discusses working with ethnic minority children and adolescents, populations that had been largely ignored in most books at the time, as other books tended to focus on the racial/ethnic adult clients and their families.

References—Chapters and Articles

Archambeau, O. G., Frueh, B. C., Deliramich, A. N., Elhai, J. D., Grubaugh, A. L., Herman, S., & Kim, B. S. K. (2010). Interpersonal violence and mental health outcomes among Asian American and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander college students. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 2(4), 273-283. doi:10.1037/a0021262

The authors collected data on interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration in response to the underrepresentation of Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders in studies of violence and trauma.  High rates interpersonal violence were found and exposure to physical violence, sexual violence, and life stress all were predictive of psychopathology.

Ayvazian, A., & Tatum, B. D. (2004). Women, race, and racism: A dialogue in black and white. In J. V. Jordan, M. Walker, & L. M. Hartling (eds.), The complexity of connection: Writings from the Stone Center’s Jean Baker Miller Training Insititute (pp. 147–163). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

This chapter discusses a friendship between a White woman and a Black woman. These women discuss their differences and commonalities. They use their relationship as a model upon which to understand how other White and Black women can develop their respective relationships.

Barbosa, P., Torres, H., Silva, M.A., & Khan, N. (2010). Agape Christian reconciliation conversations: Exploring the intersections of culture, religiousness, and homosexual identity in Latino and European Americans. Journal of Homosexuality, 57, 98-116.

In this article, the authors implemented a program to understand how homophobia displays itself through a Latino cultural lens of identity. The program included the screening of one of two documentary films about lesbian, gay and bisexual identity and family relations. Participants were asked to complete measures of homophobic attitudes and qualitative appraisal of the program. The authors found that both age and political ideology were related to homophobia. The article further investigates the complexities of the intersections of Christianity, culture, and attitudes toward homosexuality in an individual’s identity.

Bernal, G., Cumba-Avilies, E.,& Saez-Santiago, E. (2006). Cultural and relational processes in depressed Latino adolescents. In S.R. Beach, M.Z. Wamboldt, N. J. Kaslow, R. E. Heyman, M. B. First, L. G. Underwood, & D. Reiss, (Eds.),  Relational processes and DSM-V: Neuroscience, Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment (pp.211-224). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

This chapter focuses on cultural and relational processes in depressed Latino youth. It examines depression in adolescents, specifically Puerto Rican youth, and the epidemiology of depression is investigated along with the discussion of family and relational issues associated with youth depression.

Bridges, E. (2010). Racial identity development and psychological coping strategies of African American males at a predominantly white university. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 13, 14-26.

This article investigates how stressors faced by African American men affect relationships with other African Americans. The author identifies dilemmas that African American men face which generate stress experiences and group-specific identity conflicts. The author discusses environmental issues that are relevant to the psychological health of African American males, such as racism, the need to adapt to White institutions and culture, remaining situated in the African American community, and coping with limited social and political power.

Broido, E. M. (2003). Practicing praxis: Identity in diversity education. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines, 22, 57–63.

This article examined how 10 first-year peer educators used their own social identities to help them connect with students of diverse backgrounds. They felt that their conscious use of their social identities (e.g., race, gender, sexual orientation) helped them to connect more with their students and increase their credibility as educators.

Cardemil, E. V., & Battle, C. L. (2003). Guess who’s coming to therapy? Getting comfortable with conversations about race and ethnicity in psychotherapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34, 278–286.

This article suggests that therapists directly and openly discuss issues of multicultural awareness into their clinical work. The authors present questions designed to provoke thought about issues of diversity in psychotherapy.

Downey, D. B., & Pribesh, S. (2004). When race matters: Teachers’ evaluations of students’ classroom behavior. Sociology of Education, 77, 267.

This article examined the phenomenon of Black students being rated more harshly by White teachers than Black teachers. It examined the possibility of more harsh bias by White teachers, more lenient bias by Black students, or more oppositional behavior of Black students towards White teachers. The study concluded that the most likely explanation was more harsh bias by White teachers.

Fancher, T. L., Ton, H., Le Meyer, O., Ho, T., & Paterniti, D. A. (2010). Discussing depression with Vietnamese American patients. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 12(2), 263-266. doi:10.1007/s10903-009-9234-y

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Vietnamese Americans regarding experiences with depression.  Four themes emerged:  (1) Stigma and face; (2) Social functioning and the role of the family; (3) Traditional healing and beliefs about medications; and (4) Language and culture. Based on these findings, the authors offer suggestions to primary care physicians regarding culturally appropriate strategies for interactions with an increasingly diverse patient population.

Goodman, L. A., Liang, B., Helms, J. E., Lalta, R. E., Sparks, E., & Weintraub, S. (2004). Training counseling psychologists as social justice agents: Feminist and multicultural theories in action. The Counseling Psychologist. 32, 793–836.

The authors discuss the importance of social justice-oriented work in counseling psychology programs. They operationally define how this kind of work should be integrated into training programs, then they present how such work is integrated into the Boston College doctoral program.

Hall, C. C. I. (1997). Cultural malpractice: The growing obsolescence of psychology with the changing U.S. population. American Psychologist, 52, 642–651.

Hall reviews the changing face of U.S. demographics and makes a compelling argument for preparing our students for this future. She discusses why changes are needed in the curriculum, in psychological research, in training and in practice.

Helms, J. E. (1993). I also said White racial identity influences White researchers. The Counseling Psychologist, 21, 240–243.

This article was a reaction to a major contribution to The Counseling Psychologist. The major contribution presents a lively discussion of how ethnic minority researchers should react to White researchers conducting research on ethnic minority populations. Helms discussed how White identity development of the researchers might influence how they conduct their research.

Helms, J. E., & Richardson, T. Q. (1997). How “multiculturalism” obscures race and culture as differential aspects of counseling competency. In H. Coleman & D. Pope-Davis (Eds.), Multicultural counseling competencies (pp. 60–79). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This chapter discusses the importance of having a philosophical orientation that understands the sociopolitical dynamics of race in this country when dealing with ethnic minority clients in therapy. This philosophy is at the heart of multicultural competence, not surface skills per se.

Helms, J. E., Shakes Malone, L., Henze, K., Satiani, A., Perry, J., & Warren, A. (2003). First annual diversity challenge: “How to survive teaching courses on race and culture.” Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 31, 3–11.

The authors discuss topics that emerged from the first Annual Diversity Challenge conference, held at Boston College in October of 2001. It concluded with suggestions for future themes of this conference.

Helms, J. E., & Talleyrand, R. (1997). Race is not ethnicity. American Psychologist, 52, 1246–1247.

This article emphasizes the importance of the term race as opposed to ethnicity, which J. S. Phinney seems to advocate. Race has a clear meaning, whereas ethnicity is more nebulous in its meaning. Moreover, ethnicity seems to be used as a proxy for a wide range of topics related to issues of diversity.

Hines, P. M., & Boyd-Franklin, N. (2005). African American families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 87–100). New York: Guilford.

This chapter discusses issues such as kinship bonds, gender roles, parent–child systems, religion and spirituality, and therapy issues with African American families.

Hogan, D. E., & Mallott, M. (2005). Changing racial prejudice through diversity education. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 115–125.

This article studied the effectiveness of a diversity course in reducing prejudicial attitudes towards African Americans using the Modern Racism Scale developed by McConahay (1986). This course reduced such prejudice in students who measured high in need for cognition. It also revealed that this not due to a high need for social desirability.

Holoien, D. S., & Shelton, J. N. (2012). You deplete me: The cognitive costs of colorblindness on ethnic minorities. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(2), 562-565.

doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.09.010

This study investigated whether  Whites' exposure to a colorblind or multicultural ideologies differentially affected the cognitive performance of the ethnic minority individuals with whom they interacted.  Ethnic minorities paired with Whites primed with colorblindness showed poorer cognitive performance on a color-naming task than those paired with Whites primed with multiculturalism. Whites primed with colorblindness exhibited more behavioral prejudice in interracial interactions, which mediated ethnic minorities' decreased cognitive performance.

Jang, Y., Borenstein, A.R., Chiriboga, D.A., Phillips, K., & Mortimer, J.A. (2006). Religiosity, adherence to traditional culture, and psychological well-being among African American elders. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 25, 343-355.

This study assessed the associations among religiosity, adherence to traditional African American culture, and psychological well-being. The direct effect of religiosity was found to be significant for both depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. A significant interaction between religiosity and adherence to African American culture was observed in the prediction of life satisfaction. The results demonstrate that the benefits of religiosity do not exist uniformly across all African Americans but vary by the level of adherence to traditional culture.

Jang, Y., Chiriboga, D. A., Kim, G., & Rhew, S. (2010). Perceived discrimination, sense of control, and depressive symptoms among Korean American older adults. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1(2), 129-135. doi:10.1037/a0019967

Based on a survey of 472 Korean American older adults, this study explored the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Results showed that perceived discrimination directly affects depressive symptoms and is also mediated through a lowered sense of control. Implications for intervention strategies are presented.

Jason, C., & Bean, R.A. (2007). Culturally competent family therapy with Latino/Anglo-American adolescents: Facilitating identity formation. American Journal of Family Therapy, 35, 251-263.

This article focuses on culturally competent family therapy interventions, specifically on the topic of identity formation in Latino/Anglo American youth. Issues addressed include the ethnicity of the youth’s Latino parent, the youth’s appearance, acceptance from family members and peers, and cultural conflict within the home. Specific suggestions for culturally competent family therapy are provided and detailed using a case vignette.

Jones, H. (2004). A research-based approach on teaching to diversity. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31, 12–19.

This article examined elements of training teachers to recognize, accept, and affirm issues of diversity as they relate to various aspects such as race, cultural, language, and ability. It placed this research project in the context of the No Child Left Behind Act.

Kamya, H. (2005). African immigrant families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 101–116). New York: Guilford.

This is a new chapter added to the McGoldrick et al. book, focusing on issues of immigration from Africa. These issues involve colonialism in both African and the United States, acculturation, relations to one’s home country, and issues of racism that are unique to African immigrants.

Kaufman, C.E., Desserich, J., Crow, C.K., Rock, B.H., Keane, E., & Mitchell, C.M. (2007). Culture, context, and sexual risk among Northern Plains American Indian youth. Social Science & Medicine, 64, 2152-2164.

This article used data from focus groups, in-depth interviews, and surveys with American Indian adolescents and young male and female adults from a Northern Plains tribe to investigate sexual risk and avoidance. Issues addressed include the role of substance use in sexual risk, attitudes about condom use, and cultural influences on American Indian sexual health and prevention strategies.

Laubscher, L., & Powell, S. (2003). Skinning the drum: Teaching about diversity as “other.” Harvard Educational Review, 73, 203–224.

The authors discuss their respective statuses as “different” professors in their class that discusses issues of difference. They use their statuses as a vehicle to articulate their life experience and relevance of this course.

Lee, E., & Mock, M. R. (2005). Asian families: An overview. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 269–289). New York: Guilford.

This chapter is a general overview of families of Asian origin, including issues such as immigration history, trauma in their countries of origin, the “model minority” stereotype, psychopathology, service utilization, and family structures and subsystems.

Leong, F. T. L., & Okazaki, S. (2009). History of Asian American psychology. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15(4), 352-362. doi:10.1037/a0016443

This article provides an overview of the history of Asian American psychology including key events in the development of the field and the establishment of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA), significant contributions of the AAPA to national mental health policies, major areas of research in Asian American psychology, and critical issues in the training of Asian American psychologists.

Littleford, L. N. (2007). How psychotherapists address hypothetical multiple relationships dilemmas with Asian American clients: A national survey. Ethics & Behavior, 17(2), 137-162. doi:10.1080/10508420701378081

Based on a survey of 787 Asian American and non-Asian American psychotherapists, this study investigated how clinicians address hypothetical nonsexual multiple relationships dilemmas with Asian American clients.   Results indicated that psychotherapists tend to rely on their personal policies rather than clients' cultural backgrounds. Those who considered their clients' cultural backgrounds tended to be Asian American, female, have more cultural knowledge and awareness, and have been mental health providers longer.

Liu, L.L., Wang, S-W., Fung, J., Gudiño, O.G., Tao, A., & Lau, A.S. (2012). Strengths and challenges in the development of Asian American youth: Contributions of cultural heritage and the minority experience. In E. Chang and C. Downey (Eds.) Mental health across racial groups: Lifespan perspectives (pp. 147-167). New York: Springer.

This chapter discusses challenges and strengths associated with Asian American children’s mental health and well-being.  Cultural socialization, ethnic identity formation, and minority-related experiences are presented as central factors influencing the maintenance of mental health.

Liu, W. M., Iwamoto, D. K., & Chae, M. Culturally Responsive Counseling with Asian American Men. New York. Routledge Press.

This text provides an overview of research findings that may serve as an important resource for clinicians working with Asian American men. Chapters are illustrated by case study vignettes and address such topics as intergenerational conflict, racism, challenges associated with masculinity and fatherhood, suicide, domestic violence, career development, sexual orientation identity development, substance abuse, and career counseling.

Luis, H. & Torres, L.R. (2009). Culture and masculinity: When therapist and patient are Latino men. Clinical Social Work Journal, 37, 294-302.

This article describes treatment of a Latino male client by a Latino male clinician and explores issues of competence and self-doubt. The authors also discuss the challenges experienced by the clinician in terms of working with a man whose traditional upbringing is similar to his own. Finally, the authors address the framework of a dynamic interpersonal therapy and the challenges of transference, countertransference, and therapist disclosure.

Lusk, E. M., Taylor, Matthew J., Nanney, J. T., & Austin, C. C. (2010). Biracial identity and its relation to self-esteem and depression in mixed Black/White biracial individuals. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work: Innovation in Theory, Research & Practice, 19(2), 109-126. doi:10.1080/15313201003771783

This study investigated the role of self-identification and ethnic identity in levels of depression and self-esteem in black/white biracial individuals. Results indicated that participants who either identified as biracial all the time or sometimes had higher self-esteem and lower levels of depression than those who did not acknowledge their biracial identity. 

Machizawa, S., & Lau, D. T. (2010). Psychological needs of Japanese American elders: Implications for culturally competent interventions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 25(2), 183-197. doi:10.1007/s10823-010-9117-7

Based on in-depth interviews with older Japanese Americans , family, and community members, this article presents information on the psychological needs of Japanese American elders, including independence, cultural connection, social connection, feeling useful, and maintaining pride and dignity. These needs varied depending on life experiences, generation, acculturation level, gender, socioeconomic status, and proximity to family members.  Implications for mental health services are discussed. 

McKenzie-Pollack, L. (2005). Cambodian families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 290–301). New York: Guilford.

This chapter discusses the history and family issues regarding individuals from Cambodia. One of the major issues is that of trauma in the aftermath of the Khmer Rouge takeover of the country after the United States left the area after the Vietnam War.

Mildred, J., & Zúñiga, X. (2004). Working with resistance to diversity issues in the classroom: Lessons from teacher training and multicultural education. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 74, 359–375.

This article discusses the requirement of understanding issues of diversity in social work programs. It examines four issues of resistance: group process, student readiness, the sociopolitical context, and learning and engagement. It offers strategies for social work faculty to deal with these resistances.

Mio, J. S., Nagata, D. K., Tsai, A. H., & Tewari, N. (2007). Racism against Asian/Pacific Island Americans. In F. T. L. Leong, A. G. Inman, A. Ebreo, L. H. Yang, L. Kinoshita, & M. Fu (Eds.), Handbook of Asian American psychology (2nd ed., pp. 341–361). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This chapter discusses issues of stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination, and racism against those of Asian/Pacific Island descent. It discusses the history of immigration and how racist policies of the past attempted to keep Asians from immigrating to the United States, the specific racist issue of the internment of Americans of Japanese descent during World War II, and more modern forms of racism against South Asians.

Moon, A., & Cho, I. (2012). Psychology of Asian American older adults: Status, challenges, and strengths.  In E. C. Chang, & C. A. Downey (Eds.), Handbook of race and development in mental health (pp. 189-206).   New York, NY: Springer.  doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-0424-8_11

This chapter discusses the major challenges to the maintenance of mental health in older Asian Americans.  Challenges include stigmatization of mental illness, lack of mental health literacy, and underutilization of mental health services.  Strengths of this population are also discussed including familial and peer support, social networks, and religion/spirituality.

Neville, H. A., & Carter, R. T. (2005). Race and racism in counseling psychology research, training, and practice: A critical review, current trends, and future directions. The Counseling Psychologist, 33, 413–418.

This article examines the history of the Civil Rights Movement and how this transformed research and practice in psychology. It offers suggestions for future training in the area of multicultural psychology.

Ocampo, C., Prieto, L. R., Whittlesey, V., Connor, J., Janco-Gidley, J., Mannix, S., & Sare, K. (2003). Diversity research in teaching of psychology: Summary and recommendations. Teaching of Psychology, 30, 5–18.

This article examined diversity content in articles published in the journal Teaching of Psychology from 1974 through 2002. Only 7% of these articles contained content about diversity, with gender being the most frequent topic. Moreover, most of these articles were theoretical as opposed to empirical in nature.

Okazaki, S., Kassem, A. M., & Tan, J. Y. (2011). Annual review of Asian American psychology: 2010.  Asian American Journal of Psychology, 2, 225-290.

This is a systematic and critical review of 261 research articles about Asian Americans published in 2010. Articles are summarized and coded for topic areas, research methodology, and populations studied. Trends in content and methodology are discussed.

Okazaki, S., & Saw, A. (2011). Culture in Asian American community psychology: Beyond the East-West binary. American Journal of Community Psychology, 47(1-2), 144-156.

This article presents a cultural-community framework designed to facilitate collaboration between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities.  Illustrations of the framework focus on Asian American communities and incorporate Hays’ ADDRESSING model of overlapping cultural influences in the counseling context.

Pascarella, E. T., Palmer, B., Moye, M. & Pierson, C. T. (2001). Do diversity experiences influence the development of critical thinking? Journal of College Student Development, 42, 257–271.

A longitudinal examination of the experiences of student participants in the National Study of Student Learning, the authors examine the relationship between 10 specific diversity experiences and critical thinking assessed in the first and third year of college. Results showed that not all diversity experiences were related to critical thinking, but that a number of positive relationships did exist. The pattern of results depended on the subgroups studied.

Phillion, J. A., & Connelly, F. M. (2004). Narrative, diversity, and teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 457–471.

The authors present narratives to teaching about diversity. These stories are used to help make a distinction between “teacher knowledge” and “knowledge for teachers.”

Quintana,S. M.,  Chew, A.,  & Schell, G. (2012).  Counseling psychology theory and research on race and ethnicity: Implications for a psychological science of diversity.  In N. A. Fouad (Ed.).  APA handbook of counseling psychology, Vol. 1: Theories, research, and methods (pp.  453-489). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

This chapter reviews current counseling research and theory on race and ethnicity, identifying key themes and directions for future research and training.

Rockquemore, K. A., & Laszloffy, T. A. (2003). Multiple realities: A relational narrative approach in therapy with black-white mixed-race clients. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 52, 119–128.

This article discusses issues of racial identity for Black–White mixed race individuals. The initial identification is with one’s Black heritage, then later the individual integrates his/her biracial status. Narratives from biracial clients are presented to illustrate this progression.

Root, M. P. P. (2005). Filipino families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 319–331). New York: Guilford.

This chapter discusses the immigration history of Filipinos, who were citizens of the United States at one point because of the territorial status of The Philippines in the first half of the 20th century. It also discusses clinically relevant issues, such as immigration stress, communication, family structure, and religion.

Sanchez-Hucles, J., & Jones, N. (2005). Breaking the silence around race in training, practice, and research. The Counseling Psychologist, 33, 547–558.

This article was in response to major contributions discussing how race was an “unsolved challenge” in psychology. The authors discussed how there needed to be new and innovative ways of understanding race, a continued vigilance about race, greater flexibility in understanding diverse perspectives, the need for accountability of training programs, the need for multicultural guidelines, and improved training for faculty, supervisors, and students.

Shen, F. C., Wang, Y.-W., & Swanson, J. L. (2011). Development and initial validation of the Internalization of Asian American Stereotypes Scale. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(3), 283-294.

This article reports four studies validating the Internalization of Asian American Stereotypes Scale (IAASS), a self-report instrument that measures the degree to which Asian Americans have internalized racial stereotypes. A four-factor structure was supported for the IAASS, including:  Difficulties with English Language Communication, Pursuit of Prestigious Careers, Emotional Reservation, and Expected Academic Success. The reliability and validity of the measure was supported.

Stacciarini, J.M., O’Keefe, M., & Matthews, M. (2007). Group therapy as treatment for depressed Latino women: A review of the literature. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 28, 473-488.

The purpose of this study was to identify successful forms of group therapy for Latino women, determine the type of studies that have been conducted on this topic, identify therapeutic factors to consider while dealing with this population in group therapy, and explore guidelines for conducting culturally sensitive groups for this population.

Sutton, C. T., & Broken Nose, M. A. (2005). American Indian families: An overview. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 43–54). New York: Guilford.

This chapter is an overview of American Indians in the United States. It describes the history of Western contact with American Indians, values, genocide, communication styles, and other issues important to the understanding of this population in therapy.

Taylor, M., J., & Nanney, J. T. (2011). An existential gaze at multiracial self-concept: Implications for psychotherapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 51(2), 195-215. doi:10.1177/0022167810365909

The authors apply terror management and social identity theories to explore multiracial self-concept within an existential framework. Implications for psychotherapy with multiracial individuals are also discussed.

Tran, N., & Birman, D. (2010). Questioning the model minority: Studies of Asian American academic performance. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1(2), 106-118. doi:10.1037/a0019965

This literature review of research on the academic performance of Asian Americans demonstrates that social science research has continued to perpetuate the stereotype of Asian Americans as a “model minority” and that culturally appropriate research methods have not been sufficiently implemented.

Weaver, C. N. (2011). Hispanic prejudice in the United States. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(11), 2723-2738. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00836.x

This article uses data from nationwide surveys to detail the intergroup attitudes of Latino/s toward other groups, including Blacks, Asians, Jews, and Whites.

Williams, D. G., & Evans-Winters, V. (2005). The burden of teaching teachers: Memoirs of race discourse in teacher education. Urban Review, 37, 201–219.

This article presents the perspectives of two African American women, one from a critical race theory perspective and the other from a feminist theory perspective. These women teach primarily White women to become teachers, and they discuss their struggles in helping their students to understand issues of race, privilege, and systemic inequities.

Wong, Y. J., Owen, J., Tran, K. K., Collins, D. L., & Higgins, C. E. (2012). Asian American male college students' perceptions of people's stereotypes about Asian American men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 13(1), 75-88. doi:10.1037/a0022800

This study investigated 158 Asian American male college students' perceptions of other's stereotypes about Asian American men. Based on participants' open-ended responses, the following categories of stereotypes were identified: (a) interpersonal deficits, (b) intelligence, (c) intense diligence, (d) unflattering physical attributes, (e) physical ability distortions, (f) perpetual foreigner, and (g) sexual/romantic inadequacies. Latent class cluster analysis revealed three clusters of participants: Body-Mind Stereotypes, Nerd Stereotypes, and Outsider Stereotypes, the last of which had the highest levels of depressive symptoms.

Yeh, C.J. & Kwong, A. (2009). Asian American indigenous healing and coping. In  A. N. Alvarez, (Ed.), Asian American Psychology (pp. 559-574). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

This chapter highlights indigenous healing methods from an Asian perspective.  A case study is presented to capture some of the key issues relating to indigenous healing.

Teaching/Training Resources

Benjamin, Jr., L. T., Blair-Broeker, C., Ernst, R. M. & Nodine, B. F. (Eds.). (1999). Activities handbook for the teaching of psychology, Vol. 4. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

This volume in the four-volume set offers 84 activities that can be incorporated almost directly into the classroom from the printed page. Each of the exercises incorporates a writing component into the activity. This book includes such new sections including “Critical Thinking,” “Biopsychology and Animal Behavior,” and “Human Diversity and Psychology.” The organization of topics reflects recent changes in psychology. The major sections include: general skills and critical thinking, research methods and statistics, biopsychology and animal behavior, sensation and perception, learning, memory, cognition and emotion, developmental psychology, human diversity and psychology, social psychology and personality, and psychological disorders and treatments.

Branch, A. J. (2004). Modeling respect by teaching about race and ethnic identity in the social studies. Theory and Research in Social Education, 32, 523–545.

This article examines how teachers conceptualized their roles as facilitators of ethnic identity development and how teachers actually facilitated this development. The study has implications of how to prepare teachers to help develop their students’ respective ethnic identities.

Bronstein, P., & Quina, K. (Eds.). (2003). Teaching gender and multicultural awareness: Resources for the psychology classroom. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

This edited book contains chapters dealing with topics covered across the psychology curriculum. Each chapter discusses how to include issues of diversity into the topics and presents exercises and activities to infuse into these areas.

Clark, C. (2005). Diversity initiatives in higher education: Intergroup dialogue as pedagogy across the curriculum. Multicultural Education, 12, 51.

This article presents a model for multicultural discussion, called the Intergroup Dialogue as Pedagogy Across the Curriculum (INTERACT). This model emerged as a result of two campus initiatives at the University of Maryland, College Park. The author discusses the impact of INTERACT on the University of Maryland campus.

DeCuir, J. T., & Dixson, A. D. (2004). “So when it comes out, they aren’t that surprised that it is there:” Using critical race theory as a tool of analysis of race and racism in education. Educational Researcher, 33, 26–31.

The authors use Critical Race Theory to examine the experiences of African American students on their college campus, which is an elite, primarily White private school.

Goldstein, S. (2008). Cross-cultural explorations: Activities in culture and psychology (2nd ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

This is a workbook that has 90 activities on culture and psychology that one can use in the classroom or assign as outside work.

Kite, M. E., & Whitley, B. E. (2012). Ethnic and nationality stereotypes in everyday language. Teaching of Psychology, 39(1), 54-56. doi: 10.1177/0098628311430314

This article describes a classroom exercise designed to highlight the use of stereotyping in everyday language.  Topics for class discussion are provided.

Kranz, P. L., & Lund, N. L. (2004). Successful teaching techniques in a race relations class. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 138, 371–383.

This article examined the effects of a course on diversity offered during a period of racial tension in Southeastern United States. Former students of this program discussed how experiential components (e.g., living with a family of another race) were profoundly influential in their understanding of these issues.

Lott, B., & Rogers, M. R. (2011). Ethnicity matters for undergraduate majors in challenges, experiences, and perceptions of psychology. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(2), 204-210. doi: 10.1037/a0023673

Data from a national sample of undergraduate psychology majors found that students of color were significantly less satisfied than European Americans with their studies in psychology.  Responses indicated that students of color felt they received less encouragement from and interaction with faculty, perceive a lack of respect, and desired greater diversity in curriculum, research, faculty, and textbooks.

Miller, J., Hyde, C. A., & Ruth, B. J. (2004). Teaching about race and racism in social work: Challenges for White educators. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 74, 409–426.

This article offers suggestions for how White instructors can create meaningful learning environments for students taking multicultural courses from them.

Noel, J. A. (1995). Preparing teachers for diversity through critical conversation. Journal of Professional Studies, 3, 69–73.

This article discusses the unique challenges of discussing issues of diversity in a context of homogeneously White regions of the country. It presents both theoretical and practical examples of training exercises.

Pappamihiel, N. E., & Moreno, M. (2011). Retaining Latino students: Culturally responsive instruction in colleges and universities. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 10(4), 331-344. doi:10.1177/1538192711410602

The authors describe culturally responsive college teaching (CRT), which they present as a tool for promoting the success of  Latino/a students in traditionally White dominated colleges and universities.

Pedersen, P. B., & Ivey, A. E. (2003). Culture-centred exercises for teaching basic group microskills. Canadian Journal of Counseling, 37, 197–204.

The authors presented microskills in training potential multicultural therapists. The authors offer guidelines for debriefing students in their microskills exercises.

Puchner, L., & Roseboro, D. L. (2011). Speaking of Whiteness: Compromise as a purposeful pedagogical strategy toward white students' learning about race. Teaching in Higher Education, 16(4), 377-387. doi: 10.1080/13562517.2010.546528

Based on an analysis of interview data, the authors consider the pedagogical issues faced by instructors of color teaching college classes with predominantly white students.  They suggest the use of a ”pedagogy of purposeful compromise” in which instructors acknowledge that students may initially recognize privilege in society as a whole but be unable to identify their own role in the perpetuation of inequality.

Singelis, T. M. (1998) (Ed.). Teaching about culture, ethnicity, and diversity: Exercises and planned activities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This edited book contains chapters that discuss exercises and activities that can be included in teaching multicultural psychology.

Viramontez Anguiano, R. P., & Harrison, S. M. (2002). Teaching cultural diversity to college students majoring in helping professions: The use of an eco-strengths perspective. College Student Journal, 36, 152–156.

The authors present the notion of “eco-strength perspective,” which is based on the assumption that families and individuals have strengths upon which one can build. It proposes to empower clients to use the supports within one’s environment.

Williams, D. (2004). Improving race relations in higher education: The jigsaw classroom as a missing piece to the puzzle. Urban Education, 39, 316–344.

This article employs the jigsaw learning technique (Aaronson & Gonzalez, 1988), which is a cooperative learning technique, in teaching students about issues of diversity. It presents the effectiveness of the jigsaw technique in overcoming discrimination within the university in which the technique was employed.

Movies & Other Media

Daughter from Danang (An American Experience, PBS)

A documentary that follows Heidi (birth name: Mai Thi Hiep), an adopted Vietnamese and White woman, locate and reunite with her Vietnamese family. As a biracial child, Heidi was taken from Vietnam at age 8 and adopted by a single White woman in Pulaski, Tennessee, home of the Ku Klux Klan. Heidi grows up as an all American White child. At age 22, Heidi has finally located her birth family in Vietnam and returns to meet them. The filmmakers follow Heidi in preparing for the trip, during the trip, and then on her return home. The film is striking as it movingly captures issues in acculturation, cross-racial adoption, as well as cultural differences in family expectations between Vietnam and the United States.

Kaplan, R. (Executive Producer). (1989). Nightline: Black in White America. New York: American Broadcasting Company.

This was a primetime program produced by ABC that had ABC African American news correspondents covering a range of issues that affect African Americans in America.

Siegel, T. (1987). Blue collar and Buddha [motion picture]. Siegel Productions. New York: Filmakers Library.

This documentary discusses the integration of Laotian refugees who settled in Rockford, IL. The community has a wide range of responses to these refugees, from acceptance to overt racism.

Rigby, T. Sin País (Without Country)

This documentary follows one family as they face deportation after living in the U.S. for seventeen years.

Peters, W. (Writer). (1985). A class divided [Television series episode]. In D. Fanning (Producer), Frontline. Boston: WGBH.

This PBS Frontline program begins with the famous “Eye of the Storm” film, discusses issues with students in the film at a 15-year reunion, and applies these procedures to various areas such as prisons and continuing education opportunities.

Lee, M. W. (Producer and Director). (1994). Color of fear [Motion picture]. Oakland, CA: Stir-Fry Productions

This is a classic film that has two White, African American, Asian American, and Latino American men in a weekend retreat. The focus of the film deals with all of the men in the group trying to help one resistant White man overcome his naiveté about issues of race and White privilege.

Mention, L. (Producer and Director). (1999). How the zebra got its stripes: Voices of mixed-race people [Motion picture]. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto.

This documentary examines Black–White racially mixed Canadians and how their biracial status has affected their identities, dating relationships, and relations with their families.

McLeod, C. (Producer and Director). (2001). In the light of reference [Motion picture]. Bowling Green Station, NY.

This film discusses how American Indians’ spirituality is tied to the land, but how White America ignores these issues in pursuit of outdoor recreation and commercial pursuits.

Nava, G. (Director). (1995). My family/mi familia [Motion picture]. American Playhouse.

This widely released film follows multiple generations of a Mexican American family that has had to deal with racism and cultural clashes in its acculturation from Mexico to the former Mexican lands of Los Angeles.

Reid, F. (Producer). (1995). Skin deep [Motion picture]. San Francisco: California Newsreel.

This is a film dealing with issues of race/ethnicity during a weekend retreat of a large number of high school aged children.

Additional sources for films about race and ethnicity:

Asian American Film Database:

Black Film Center/Archive:

Bullfrog Films:

California Newsreel:

Center for Asian American Media:

Films for the Humanities and Sciences:

Latino International Film Institute:

Museum of the Moving Image:

National Center for Jewish film:

New Day films:


Working Films:

Web sites

AAC&U Resources

Association of American Colleges and Universities’ diversity resource page.

APA Division 45 -- Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minoirity Issues

This is the official Web site of Division 45 of the American Psychological Association, the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues.

APA Division 17 -- Counseling Psychology, Section on Ethnicity, Race, and Diversity

This is the official Web site of the Section on Ethnicity, Race, and Diversity of Division 17 of the American Psychological Association, the Division on Counseling Psychology.

APA Resources on Race

Office of Teaching Resources in Psychology

The Office of Teaching Resources in Psychology (OTRP) Online is a Web page that contains numerous resources for teaching, including syllabi for a variety of courses (Project Syllabus) and assorted other teaching resources such as databases, annotated bibliographies, a compendium of textbooks, and other teaching-related documents. New materials are added regularly. Contents include bibliographies and other resources: An Annotated Bibliography on Diversity in Psychology; International Psychology: Annotated Bibliography; Informational Resources for Teaching Cross-Cultural Issues; and Activities and Videos for Teaching Cross-Cultural Issues in Psychology.

Paul Kivel's Web Site

This is the website of Paul Kivel, a nationally known trainer in the area of anti-racism education.

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