PRESIDENT LETTER BLOG
This blog contains an archive of "Greetings from the President" that appeared since January 2020 on the STP home page and in STP News. To view letters from STP Presidents from 2016 through 2019, click here.
I hope everyone is finding something to keep you going as we draw near the end of the term. I know this time of year can be difficult as daylight gets shorter and it gets colder in some places. I just hate getting up and eating meals in the dark!
I would like to remind everyone of some STP information:
I wanted to share some research related to my talk at the recent ACT. My talk centered on sharing our stories and using story to teach (albeit being judicious about what we share in the classroom). I stumbled across a meta-analysis that supported the positive effects of narratives on comprehension and memory. How exciting to see some of my theories supported by research!
Since it is that time of year when we begin to think about those things for which we are grateful, I wanted to use this column to say some thank yous. I am not able to individually thank each person who has supported me this year, but I do want share a few.
Thanks to the Executive Committee (Linda, Loretta, Danae, Teceta, Morton, Bill, Kristin) who has worked far beyond what I even imagined. It is really their hard work (and that of all their committees) that keeps STP running. They have terrific ideas for new initiatives and their grace during our discussions can serve as a model for how to disagree without distressing everyone.
Thanks especially to Secretary Stephanie who keeps meticulous (and speedy) minutes. She can always find the motion or answer other questions (that I should probably know the answer to!).
Thanks to our Executive Director, Tom, for his patience with all my endless questions and for keeping me on track with what I need to be doing.
Thanks to our Treasurer, Jeff, who helps me understand all our budget issues and can always answer my questions about the money. His has a difficult job, and he does it without complaining.
Thanks to Lindsay, our Director of ACT, and Melissa, our APA Program Director. They also answered my questions patiently and they produced two wonderful programs.
Thanks to the many, many other STP committee members who have responded to my queries or helped answer a question. Your work is noticed and appreciated.
I hope you plan some downtime for the upcoming holiday. Try to unplug, don’t check an LMS, don’t answer email!
Happy October! I am coming off the excitement of a VERY successful Annual Conference on Teaching but also coping with jet lag from the West to East coast flight! A HUGE thanks to ACT Director Lindsay Masland and her conference committee: Brittany Avila, Jacqueline Goldman, Kate Jansen, Alison Melley and Blake Nielsen. Their hard work before and during helped to make the conference an inspiring three days.
I hope everyone who attended ACT left with the same sense of excitement and purpose without jet lag. If you were not able to join us in Portland, remember that there will be an online conference in February. Be sure to check out the details on the ACT web page.
STP has a lot going on. There are a few positions available at our Get Involved page. Please do think about applying to serve in one of these positions. There is always a name you can email if you have more questions.
We also will be seeking applications for three members of our Executive Committee: STP President Elect, VP for Membership, and VP for Diversity and International Relations. The deadline for these positions is November 15, 2023.
I want to share some of the announcements, recognitions and awards from the conference so everyone in STP knows about the great work so many people are doing. There are far too many people for me to name individually, but know that your service to STP is valued.
Keli Braitman, past Vice President for Grants and Awards presented STP’s annual awards. I am always impressed by the accomplishments of our award recipients. This year’s recipients are:
· Wayne Weiten Teaching Excellence Award (2-year college) – Heather Schoenherr
· Mary Margaret Moffett Memorial Teaching Excellence Award (high school) – Maria Vita
· Wilbert J. McKeachie Teaching Excellence Award (graduate student) – Skyler Mendes
· Jane S. Halonen Teaching Excellence Award (early career) – Leslie Berntsen
· Robert S. Daniel Award (4-year college) – Colleen Seifert
· Civic Engagement Award – Michael Figuccio
· Mentorship of Teachers Award – Jessica Hartnett
· Promoting Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Award - Milton Fuentes
Membership has been busy. The winner of the first annual Design Contest was Jenny Kunz. Her design appears on stickers that were distributed at ACT and will be distributed at other STP-sponsored conferences in 2024. These stickers are sure to become collectibles! This will be an annual contest so look for the announcement and consider submitting a design. The MidCareer Psychology Committee is now officially a committee and is preparing to offer webinars next year. STP’s mentoring services have moved to the Membership area.
Resources has also been busy. There have been special editions of Teaching of Psychology and two new e-books. There are twelve new peer-reviewed syllabi and four new peer-reviewed resources. The Tagging Project has made it easy to find what you need across all our sites quickly.
Diversity and International Relations is continuing to discuss ways to incorporate Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Belonging across all endeavors. They also facilitated the DEIB training for the Executive Committee. Our international presence is growing rapidly and STP will be represented at international conferences in India, Mexico, France and Sweden. Our Director of STP Programming at International Conferences, Susan Nolan, has been making even more connections internationally, so STP has become visible across the world.
Programming has had a successful year. In addition to ACT, STP was present at many conferences. Conference directors include Melissa Maffeo (APA), Molly Metz (APS), David Berg (NITOP), Drew Christopher (SPSP), and Judith Bryant (SRCD). Garth Neufeld oversees the outstanding work of the regional conference coordinators. Brooke Whisenhunt coordinated the speaker selections for our co-sponsored lectures (with APA’s Board of Education Affairs) at APA 2023.
The Executive Committee (EC) has been working for you as well. We have been discussing fiscal responsibility and what that means for our budget. We are exploring ways to honor our members who have passed. We are creating a way to collect demographic information from our members, so we have some data for maintaining and creating programs. Please know that the EC is here to work for you. Let us know if there are concerns or suggestions.
A final note (and a terrific opportunity for college faculty): If you are in higher education and have ever wondered about the Advanced Placement Psychology exam, they are looking for readers (i.e., graders) from higher education. It is a great chance to see how the AP scores are calculated as well as to meet fabulous teachers from all over the world. Plus, you get paid. Next summer’s reading will be in Kansas City. If you are interested, contact Kristin Whitlock.
Welcome back to a new school year! I hope everyone’s year is off to a rousing start. I know we have already had to deal with a lot of natural disasters, and I hope anyone in those zones has stayed safe. Do let us know if there is anything STP can do to help.
Thanks to Melissa Maffeo for a great and successful program at the APA convention. We had some interesting sessions. You can learn more about STP’s programming at APA 2023 by viewing the August 2023 Special Issue of STP News.
The Executive Committee is gearing up for our meetings at the conference in October prior to and during the Annual Conference on Teaching. If you have anything of concern, please let me know so that we can discuss it.
Speaking of the Annual Conference on Teaching, Lindsay Masland and her committee are hard at work to put on another fabulous time in Portland. I hope you will be able to join us in person. Information about the schedule is available here. There will be an online conference in February 2024 as well.
As always, Lindsay has come up with a great opportunity for networking and connecting. She has announced that she is able to support Affinity Group meetings at ACT: On Location in Portland this year! From Lindsay: “So, if you've ever wanted to meet up with other psych teachers who are like you—whether "like you" means a shared sociodemographic identity, a specific teaching context, or some other area of interest—this could be the perfect venue for you! But, for these meetings to happen, we need folks to propose groups. So, if you'd like to make new friends and are willing to take on the very light lift of filling out an application for a potential group meet-up, please fill out this application by September 15th!”
The mention of affinity groups is a great lead-in to my guest columnist this month, Dr. Teceta Tormala from Palo Alto University. Teceta is also the Vice-President for Diversity and International Relations. At the 2022 ACT she talked about how she uses affinity groups in her teaching. She has brought many new ideas to STP, and I am excited for everyone to read about identity and teaching.
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Socioculturally-Embedded Intersectional Teaching in a Polarized World
Dr. Teceta Tormala, STP Vice President for Diversity and International Relations
I am cycling into my 19th year of teaching (wow!), and I think often about how my teaching- and the scholarship of teaching and learning- has evolved over the past two decades. When I was in graduate school and in my early years in academia, the teaching model of “the sage on the stage” predominated, and the prototypical sage was White, male, and in middle age. In my early years, as a Black woman in her late 20s and early 30s, the mold didn’t fit. As my time as an educator progressed, I came to more fully understand where I fit in the model of teaching and learning, and what was missing from my course content and teaching practice. I had to find another path distinct from the way in which much of psychology had been taught, often decontextualized from the multiplicity of individuals and the complexities of the lived experiences of groups in the sociocultural context of a complicated world. Our field wasn’t always inclusive of the psychological processes and experiences of all.
The term that I have been using to capture this approach to teaching is socioculturally-embedded intersectional teaching, which I conceptualize as facilitating and educating from one’s intersectional self with awareness of the nested contexts of the classroom, institution, and society, and in service of deepening and broadening knowledge of the collective. The lens that our corner of the field- the teaching of psychology, and the scholarship of teaching and learning of psychology- must continue to embrace in our approach to educating is a systemic one, which foregrounds the importance of sociocultural identity, structural factors, and sociohistorical forces in shaping individuals. The work of Urie Bronfenbrenner offers a path, through ecological systems theory, that is attentive to the nested contexts in which each of us exists, and the impact that interactions, relationships, places, policies, laws, social representations, and ideologies have on our thoughts, feelings, and emotions.
We are not operating within a vacuum- we are living and teaching in the reality of 2023, riven with conflict and hatred, in which politics, culture, and identity are clashing at their intersections to deleterious effect on nations, on groups, and on individuals. As educators, we need to grapple with this reality as it impacts our teaching and as it impacts our students’ learning. Who we are and who our students are matters; what we teach matters; how we teach matters. How do we engage across lines of difference in meaningful ways? How do we create open and vulnerable classroom spaces where diverse experiences and opinions can be stated and be heard? What are the ways through which students who are liberal and conservative, disabled and abled, people of color and multiracial and white, religious and areligious can truly engage in our classrooms? Why does cultural responsiveness matter when teaching AP psychology or introductory biological psychology or high-level seminars? How do we stay engaged in the work of teaching the content that we love within the noise and conflict of a dispiriting, troubling world?
Models that we see today within our field orient towards belonging and inclusion. Dr. Thema Bryant’s theme from the 2023 APA convention was, “You belong here”. From her role as president of APA, she invited attendees to wear something that reflected an important aspect of their identity, be it religion, race, nationality, sexuality, or another lived experience. The organizers included an interfaith program, with hourlong practices from Native Hawaiian, Buddhist, Muslim, Lakota, Christian, Sufi, and Jewish spiritual and religious traditions, open to people from all backgrounds. Within STP, I have been thrilled to be a part of the creation of affinity groups organized around identity and lived experience. STP members are excited about spaces for connection, support, and community. At present, there are affinity groups aligned around a multitude of educator identities and experiences: Race and ethnic identity (Asian, Pacific Islander, and Desi (APID); Arab, Middle Eastern, and North African (AMENA); Latinx; Black); queer identity; in/visible dis/ability identity; educators at community colleges; late career and retired educators; educators who are parents and caregivers. At the ACT conference in October, Lindsay Masland and the ACT programming committee graciously created space in the schedule for these groups to meet and connect.
Each of us is a whole, complicated, multicultural self with group-based beliefs and experiences- and the only singular us who will ever exist. We share a core humanity and a deep need for connection, and this is the bridge that we traverse as educators- between the collective and the individual, between your way and my way and our way, all in service of deepening our understanding of the human condition.
As I write this column, I keep looking at the calendar in disbelief. August, and the start of a new school year, are right around the corner. While I love the start of a new school year and all the possibilities it brings, I cannot believe the summer has gone by so quickly! I hope you have been able to take some time to recharge and relax. I recently found out how important that actually is. Do not let work consume you!
The Presidential Trio (President Elect, Past President and President) along with the executive Director will represent STP at the American Psychological Association annual convention in Washington DC during the first week of August. Our Program Chair, Melissa Maffeo, has put together a program rich in updated content and it looks to be an invigorating experience.
I do have some sad news to share. I always hate to share such news in a public forum, but it is the only way to reach everyone who might want to know. We recently lost two of our long-time supporters and members. Dr. Rick Miller, former President, passed away this June in Mallorca Spain. Dr. Robin Hailstorks, recipient of the 2023 Presidential Citation, passed away in Washington DC in July. Our thoughts are with their families, and we are grateful for all they gave to STP.
My guest columnist this month is Dr. Judith Pena-Shaff, the Chair of our Diversity Committee. Her thoughts are really apt given the imminent start of the school term.
Building Resilience in Students: Understanding Factors and Implementing Strategies
Dr. Judith Pena-Shaff, Ithaca College,
The other day, I came across a thought-provoking Facebook message that read: "We are confronting a generation of emotionally weak people, where everything must be softened for them." While it would be unfair to label an entire generation as weak, it is true that some college students may struggle with resilience. In this column, I will explore some of the factors contributing to this challenge and propose strategies I have been researching to incorporate in the psychology courses I teach to help build resilience in students. I hope you find some of these strategies useful as well.
Factors Influencing Students' Struggles with Resilience:
Strategies to Foster Resilience in College Classes:
Building resilience in students is crucial to help them navigate the challenges of academic life and beyond. As psychology instructors, we can play a vital role in developing their coping skills and problem-solving abilities. Here are some effective strategies to consider. Many of these can be implemented both in small and large enrollment classes.
Building resilience in college students is an ongoing process that requires empathy, understanding, and support. By implementing these strategies, psychology instructors can equip their students with the tools and knowledge to navigate the ups and downs of college life and beyond. Creating a compassionate and supportive environment will foster their growth, allowing them to thrive personally and academically.
DeRosier, M. E., Frank, E., Schwartz, V., & Leary, K. A. (2013). The potential role of resilience education for preventing mental health problems for college students. Psychiatric Annals, 43(12), 538-544.
Rogers, H. B. (2013). Mindfulness meditation for increasing resilience in college students. Psychiatric Annals, 43(12), 545-548.
Shatkin, J. P., Diamond, U., Zhao, Y., DiMeglio, J., Chodaczek, M., & Bruzzese, J. M. (2016). Effects of a risk and resilience course on stress, coping skills, and cognitive strategies in college students. Teaching of Psychology, 43(3), 204-210.
Walsh, P., Owen, P. A., Mustafa, N., & Beech, R. (2020). Learning and teaching approaches promoting resilience in student nurses: An integrated review of the literature. Nurse education in practice, 45, 102748.
Happy summer! I hope everyone is getting some recharging time, even if you are teaching summer school (as I am). I do try to take time to watch baseball most days. Those who know me know that is really my happy place and since my favorite college team just won the College World Series, I am really happy. Plus, my favorite pro team – the Orioles – is playing lights out.
I want to remind everyone of a few opportunities:
One of the privileges of the STP Presidency is the ability to give two very deserving individuals a Presidential Citation, which acknowledges “extraordinary lifetime contributions to the Society and/or to the teaching of psychology.” My recipients are extraordinary teachers and people who have contributed to our profession and their students. I have been fortunate to know both of them for decades and I am thrilled to have a chance to recognize them since they are folks who tend to stay in the background.
My first recipient is Mr. Alan Feldman of Glen Rock High School in NJ. I know of no other psychology teacher (at any level) who is as accomplished as Alan. He has been a participant in everything related to psychology teaching over the last decades including the National High School Summit, the Clark University TOPSS sponsored workshop, the Advanced Placement reading and test development committee and the executive committee for Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools (TOPSS).
One of the AP administrators says of Alan: ‘Alan has served as a Table Leader on my team numerous times. I rely on his depth of knowledge of the content. A small pre-team of Table Leaders creates the grading rubric that will score one of the free response questions (FRQ's). I often turn to Alan to ask about research that has been done on a particular concept. I know of no other person at the reading who has such an in-depth understanding of the content. His contributions have helped our team build rubrics that are concise and effective tools.”
Alan has received several teaching awards including the Charles T. Blair Broeker Excellence in Teaching Award from TOPSS, the Moffett Teaching Excellence Award from STP and the Perth-Amboy School District Teacher of the Year.
He has presented at too many workshops to count and has served as a keynote speaker multiple times, including as the Professional Night Speaker at the Advanced Placement Psychology Reading.
Alan has taught at a local community college and has served as an instructor in graduate teaching of AP Psychology courses at Goucher College, Drew University and Fordham University.
Most importantly are his achievements with his students. Six of his students from Glen Rock HS have been published in Psychology Teacher Network. Many have gone onto major in psychology and their comments make it clear he is a caring and dedicated teacher. One student wrote: “You made me feel smart in your class. You encouraged me to raise my hand by acknowledging what I had to say as valuable. I loved the way that you taught. You spoke with passion about what you were teaching. Thank you for everything that you did for me, Mr. Feldman. I would not have the confidence I have now if I did not have you as a teacher. When I come back to visit Glen Rock High School, your classroom will be the first I go to.” Another says of Alan: “At the time I had him as a teacher, all I wanted was for Mr. Feldman to see how positively he had impacted those he taught or simply greeted in the halls. He was so modest that when anybody said that he was the best teacher they had ever had, he would simply shake his head and tell them to stop. Well now, I am not letting him shake his head. I want Mr. Feldman to know that he is the best teacher and person I have ever known. He has not only taught me an incredible amount of information, but he has also shown me, by example, how to be an understanding, patient person.” I concur and it is my great honor to present this Presidential Citation to Alan Feldman.
My second recipient is Dr. Robin Hailstorks of Prince George’s Community College in Maryland. Dr. Hailstorks has been a professor of psychology and Department Chair at Prince George’s for over thirty years during which time she has mentored countless part-time and full-time faculty (including me!).
Robin earned her bachelors at Morgan State University and has helped to make it easier for many community college students to continue their education at the baccalaureate level at Morgan. She earned her doctorate at The Ohio State University.
In 1997, she received the Wayne Weiten Teaching Excellence Award (Division 2) which recognizes excellence in teaching at a two-year college.
She has been involved in making community college psychology a national concern. While advising a Psi Beta chapter at Prince George’s Community College, Robin served as Psi Beta’s Eastern Regional Vice-President (1994 to 1996). Robin was Psi Beta’s National President from 1997-1998.
Robin was involved with APA’s Diversity Project 2000 and Beyond (DP2K), which was a leadership and mentoring program designed for ethnic minority honor students attending community colleges. DP2kB occurred two days prior to and two days during the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association and offered full grants for out-of-state students and partial grants for local students admitted into the program.
She also served as Associate Director of Precollege and Undergraduate Education in the American Psychological Association’s Education Directorate for many years. Jerry Rudmann says of Robin: “she has played a key role in dozens of APA-sponsored events, task forces, and working groups all of which supported, encouraged, and provided valuable resources for America’s psychology teachers and thousands of their students.” She was instrumental in contributing to two working groups appointed by APA’s Board of Educational Affairs.
Robin has always worked quietly “behind the scenes” and many do not really know all the contributions she has made to the advancement of community college psychology and to the teaching of psychology. I am honored to give her this Presidential Citation.
This month my guest columnist (and a pertinent one when we are talking about recharging) is Dr. Keli Braitman. Keli is a Professor and the Chair of Psychological Science, William Jewell College. She recently rotated off the Executive Committee where she served as Vice-President of Grants and Awards. In that position, she worked to make sure grants and awards are equitably distributed as well as to make application and review more coherent and clearer.
by Keli A. Braitman, Ph.D.
Several years ago – before the pandemic – I developed an interest in learning more about mindfulness and wellbeing. The older I get, the more I prioritize my own wellbeing and focusing on what brings contentment and happiness to my life. I already knew some of the basics about wellbeing (as a psychology teacher), but I wanted to learn more, including what the research has shown and how to better prioritize these practices.
Despite my interest, it never came together. I’m sure we’re all familiar with buying books and then not finding the time to read them! To force my hand, I proposed a new course at our college that would focus on the science and practice of wellbeing, modeled after Laurie Santos’ wellbeing course at Yale University (also available for free on Coursera - https://www.coursera.org/learn/the-science-of-well-being). I figured that if I taught the course, it would force me to learn the material. It was mutually beneficial, because I wanted to learn how to enhance my own wellbeing, while offering the opportunity to students as well.
I started by exploring resources available through STP. I found Jess Hartnett’s syllabus for her Positive Psychology course through ‘Project Syllabus’ (https://teachpsych.org/otrp/syllabi/index.php), and after contacting her with a few questions, she generously shared additional material with me. Through my networking connections in STP, I learned of others who were teaching similar courses, and they shared material with me as well – thank you especially to Jane Halonen and Jennifer Oliver!
I’ll start by saying that this was one of the most fulfilling courses I’ve ever taught. Not only did I learn a lot about the science and practice of wellbeing, but overwhelmingly the students reported feeling grateful to learn about this topic as well, especially within our core curriculum. This course satisfied the science requirement for our core curriculum, which I believe helps expand students’ understanding of what science is and how our discipline is informed by scientific inquiry and process.
Topics we read about and discussed included fostering social connection, finding meaning and purpose in our choices and our lives, creating time affluence for ourselves (time to rest or do things we enjoy), fostering gratitude and kindness, practicing mindfulness, including meditation, engaging our signature strengths, finding flow, moving our bodies, and getting enough sleep.
I related these topics to students’ lives and encouraged them to think of ways to incorporate these practices. For example, after completing a survey on signature strengths, students shared examples of how they use their strengths and how they might develop them further.
Once the semester finished, I reflected upon how so many of these wellbeing practices are encompassed in the work that we do as teachers of psychology. Teaching provides us with inherent opportunities for experiencing meaning and purpose in our lives. So many of us have related anecdotes of a student or alumnus sharing a story about the impact we had on their lives – talk about meaning and purpose! Doing work that serves others can lead to incredible fulfillment and meaning.
We’re certainly each utilizing signature strengths within our roles as teachers (e.g., creativity, curiosity, fairness, honesty, humor, judgment, leadership, love of learning – just to name a few). Harzer and Ruch (2012) found that people who incorporate signature strengths into their work are more likely to report job satisfaction and to think of their job as their “calling.” Similarly, LeFevre (1988) sampled workers throughout their day, asking how they were feeling, what was their level of concentration, and what would they rather be doing. Not surprisingly, most who were working reported they would rather be at leisure. However, while at work they also reported feeling a sense of efficacy and self-confidence, whereas when sampled during leisure they reported feeling apathy and boredom. So, although self-care is often represented by taking time to binge Netflix, for example, research suggests that engaging in meaningful work often leads to more fulfillment. Don’t get me wrong – having time to rest and play is important, too, but so is engagement in meaningful activities.
Many teachers experience gratitude for the opportunity to do this work we love, including the flexibility that comes with many teaching positions, and the opportunities to foster intergenerational connections with colleagues and students. We can extend kindness, even when we’re maintaining our policies and expectations. We have the intellectual challenge of staying current on the topics we teach, and the creative challenge of conveying difficult topics in accessible ways. This process can be incredibly meaningful and keep us sharp in ways we may not otherwise experience. And I know I have certainly experienced flow when I’ve been in the classroom. Time has often passed very quickly, and class is over before I’ve realized it. I even experienced flow in writing this column – so much so that I forgot to feed my dogs dinner! (Don’t worry, they reminded me).
Not every aspect of teaching lends itself to practices of wellbeing, and we do have to be intentional about setting healthy boundaries, protecting time for other things, and creating opportunity for exercise and sleep. But it was incredibly gratifying (applying one of these wellbeing practices!) to consider the myriad ways that our chosen profession can align with healthy practices of taking care of ourselves.
I started the course by highlighting for students several news sources stating that “Americans are the unhappiest they have been in decades” (CBS News, 2022) and that “Americans are the most unhappy people in the world” (ABC News, 2013). To highlight the importance of this course, and why I was inspired to teach it. I followed those news stories with a piece by Marcia Morris in Psychology Today (2022) entitled, “Dear College Student, You Deserve to be Happy.” Well, colleagues, so do we. I’m heartened to think about how teaching fulfills many of the practices that can promote our wellbeing, and I’m hopeful you are able to as well. And in the spirit of practicing gratitude – I am thankful to STP President Diane Finley for giving me the opportunity to share my thoughts, and to our STP community of teachers, who inspire me on a regular basis and are generous with one another.
Americans most unhappy people in the world. ABC13. (2013, February 20).
Americans are the unhappiest they’ve been in 50 years, poll finds. NBC News. (2020, June 16). https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/politics-news/americans-are-unhappiest-they-ve-been-50-years-poll-finds-n1231153
Harzer & Ruch (2012). When the job is a calling: The role of applying one’s signature strengths at work. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7, 362-371.
LeFevre, J. (1988). Flow and the quality of experience during work and leisure. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness (pp. 307–318). Cambridge University Press.
Morris, M. (2022, November 6). Dear college student, you deserve to be happy: Enhancing academic, social, and mental health experiences in college. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/college-wellness/202211/dear-college-student-you-deserve-be-happy
Apply for STP’s DEIB Working Group (by June 30)
I hope that everyone’s Spring terms have ended successfully. If you are beginning a spring quarter or summer term, I wish smooth teaching. This will be a shorter than normal column – I want everyone to spend their time relaxing rather than reading my writing. So, this month, I want to highlight one specific STP endeavor this month.
Before I do that, though, I want to congratulate all the newly elected STP officers and thank everyone who agreed to run. It takes a commitment to serve STP and even to run for office. Please think about future elections and participating as a candidate! More information can be found in the recent newsletter and on our homepage.
This month I want to highlight our call for a Working Group to support our Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Belonging (DEIB) initiatives. After the events in 2020, STP has begun to examine our structures, policies, procedures, and programs. We have had several working groups who have already done great work on DEIB. However, this work is not completed. To that end, we are formulating another working group to build on the work of those prior groups. I am including the Call for Applications below, so it reaches a wide audience. Please take some time to consider applying and helping with this work.
STP’s DEIB Working Group
We seek applications for a new STP working group: Integrating DEIB (diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging) across the structure of STP. Consistent with our Mission Statement and the Statement on Addressing Systemic Racism and Inequity in STP, we encourage applications from colleagues who are from underrepresented groups and have diverse backgrounds and experiences.
In 2020, we put out a statement on our priorities around addressing racism and inequity within STP. As an organization, we have made progress within the four priorities (Critical reflection and assessment, Representation, Equity, and Inclusivity), but still have much work to do. One important area of work that we are now undertaking is an assessment of how to integrate DEIB across all facets of our organizational structure , to ensure that equity and inclusion are embedded within all areas and integrated into the constitution of STP.
To create this structural change, we are forming a working group whose charge is to create recommendations for how to integrate DEIB across the structure of STP. The group would be engaged with questions such as the following:
Term of Service: Given the scope of the charge of this working group, the term will be August 2023 - August 2024 with reports due February and August. If the working group determines that more time is needed to fulfill the scope of the work, and members are interested and able to continue to participate, the term of the working group can be extended.
Please include the following in your application:
Please submit all materials to Diane Finley- firstname.lastname@example.org- no later than June 30, 2023
In your email, please identify the working group (Integrating DEIB across STP’s structure) in the subject line.
If you have any questions or need any clarification before you make your decision to apply, please do not hesitate to ask.
Remember that any member of STP is welcome (and invited) to apply for any service opportunity. Please do check this site regularly and throw your proverbial hat in the ring. We really want everyone to get involved and we need everyone to make STP the best it can be. From the Get Involved page:
STP is committed to providing opportunities to as many of its members as possible to participate in STP initiatives. Whenever there is a vacancy on a committee, task force, or working group, this will be one of the places where the vacancy is announced. If you have a specific interest or question about any of our initiatives, please visit the STP Leadership page for email addresses of our executive committee members, committee chairs, editors, directors, and coordinators. Even if there is no current vacancy, you should feel free to contact one or more of these individuals to express your interest in getting involved.
If you are not a current member of STP, visit our Join page. We welcome anyone interested in the teaching of psychology.
PLEASE VOTE, COMPLETE OUR SURVEY, AND LEARN ABOUT STP INITIATIVES
Happy May – I hope everyone has a smooth end of the term if your semester is ending this month. I am not sure why the Spring term always seems so much longer than Fall! Nonetheless, celebrate your accomplishments and those of your students as graduations occur. This month I am going to focus on STP and all that we offer. I think that, too often, we are not aware of everything available to STP members. I know that I have missed things.
PLEASE VOTE FOR STP OFFICERS
First, I want to remind everyone that STP’s elections are currently taking place. Thanks to those who volunteered to run and serve the Society! The STP Elections & Appointments Committee is pleased to announce the candidates for STP offices. Candidate statements are available on the STP website.
All STP members are eligible to vote for four open offices: President-Elect, Secretary, Vice President for Programming, and Vice President for Resources. If you are not a current member and would like to vote for these offices, please join on the STP website. You may vote until May 16 by clicking here (requires login).
APA members of Division 2 will receive a separate ballot for two Division 2 Representatives to APA Council. There are four candidates, and we will use rank-order voting, with the top two vote-getters elected. Ballots will be sent via email to APA members of Division 2 on May 8 and the due date for voting is June 7.
Thank you for participating in this year's vote.
PLEASE COMPLETE THE STP SURVEY FROM OUR TASK FORCES
I also want to share an update on my two task forces. They have been working hard and I commend the two Chairs for the thought they are putting into this process. I asked each to share what their group is doing.
From Crystal Quillen: The Community College Taskforce has been meeting since the end of January. We have a talented group of individuals and were excited to share our backgrounds and experiences. We began our conversation by talking about surveying members and non-members to see who a community college instructor was. This appeared to be more difficult than we thought, which led us to discuss the need for a larger membership survey and invite the MSI Taskforce and the Membership Committee to help. Some of our questions specifically focused on why current community college members of STP have joined and how we can communicate the benefits of STP with non-members.
From Angela Swilling: The MSI (Minority Serving Institution) Taskforce has met a few times and we are working on analyzing email domains to determine an estimate of what percentage of STP members are at MSIs. (This term covers all categories of minority serving institutions). Although this task is difficult since many domains are more generic (e.g., Gmail or yahoo), it does give us an estimate. Additionally, we are working with the Community College Taskforce and Membership Committee to develop a survey to collect data on how STP can improve. We are specifically interested in how faculty from MSIs can be better served and made to feel welcome. We hope to identify factors that might encourage more membership and engagement, including resources that might be beneficial to faculty at MSIs.
The two groups worked together to develop two survey, one for STP members (requires login) and one for STP non-members. Please click on either of the survey links above and take a few minutes to give us your thoughts.
REPORT FROM THE RENAMING ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY WORKING GROUP
During 2021 and 2022, there was a great deal of discussion about the title of the abnormal psychology course on STP’S social media outlets. In response, the STP Executive Committee approved and charged a working group with considering the pros and cons of recommending an alternate title for this commonly offered course. The working group surveyed what titles are being used for the course and examined the potential effects of changing the title. These effects could include transferability, especially between community colleges and four-year institutions. Other effects could be how admissions officers who review applicants to professional programs (including non-psychology programs that have this course as a prerequisite) would view name changes. The question was if the title was important or if admissions officers would review syllabi for comparability. The group also examined how the title might contribute to stigma around mental health. The Renaming Abnormal Psychology Working Group completed their report. It is one of the most thorough and complete I have read. The report is located on the STP website. We have sent the report to a number of other groups who might have a stake in the title of the course. Please take time to review the report.
ADDITIONAL UPDATES ON STP INITIATIVES
STP is expanding its presence at international conferences. Susan Nolan has assumed the position of Director of Programming at International Conferences. Read about upcoming events. STP was represented at the 2023 International Convention of Psychological Science (ICPS) held in Brussels in March.
Remember that STP has groups designed to represent graduate students, early career professionals, and mid-career professionals. Just click the Membership tab to find more information. Each group has compiled lists of helpful resources.
STP has a large number of awards to honor teaching as well as grants to fund travel to conferences, teaching projects, and more. The Grants/Awards page has a calendar showing the due dates for each award or grant. Please consider applying for one of the grants or nominate yourself (or someone else) for the awards.
Our Annual Conference on Teaching (part of our Programming area) is now accepting submissions for the conference, which will be held face-to-face in Portland, OR on October 5-7, 2023 with additional online programming scheduled for early 2024. There are many types of submissions accepted. If you have never submitted, please do not think ACT is cliquish. We focus on teaching and while I may be biased, I think it is the most welcoming conference on the national level. If you do not want to submit, please consider joining us this October in Portland or virtually next year.
Our Resources area offers a wealth of teaching resources including eBooks, blogs, journals, and more. I plan to spend some time this summer exploring both new (and older) resources to update my courses for the fall term.
All of the above treasures are due to so many individuals whom I have no space to name. Their dedication to teaching is awe-inspiring and STP would not be the organization we are without all these volunteers. I thank them for their time, energy, and vision.
This brings me to an invitation to check the Get Involved page regularly. All positions within STP are open to everyone to apply. We really want to include everyone, and I encourage you to take the leap and apply for open positions. It can be a bit intimidating, but we really do want everyone to feel welcome and included.
I hope you have a smooth end to the term and a reinvigorating summer. Please take some time to explore what STP offers and join us. We look forward to getting to know everyone.
Updates from APA Council, STP Instagram Account, ACT News, and Column from STP’s VP for Membership
April – the start of baseball season which for me always signals Spring! I hope you have something that gives you those same feelings of hope, beginning again, and starting anew!
Updates from APA Council
I want to share some updates from the recent American Psychological Association Council of Representatives (COR) meetings that have direct relevance for us at STP. For those newer to STP and APA, COR is the governing body for APA. Everything must go before them for a vote. Each division, state association and APA committee has representatives who gather twice a year to discuss APA business. Several items are of particular interest to teachers of psychology.
The Council unanimously adopted revised APA’s Principles for Quality Undergraduate Education in psychology and approved December 2032 as the expiration date. These principles offer best practices that faculty members, programs, and departments can adopt to facilitate student learning and development, in ways that fit their institutional needs and missions. This document is designed to complement, and to be used in conjunction with, the APA Guidelines for the Undergraduate Psychology Major. (The third revision of the Guidelines was recently approved by the Board of Educational Affairs and has been forwarded to the COR for approval).
The Council voted 151–4, with one abstention, to adopt Educational Guidelines for Equitable and Respectful Treatment of Students in Graduate Psychology Training Programs. These guidelines encourage graduate psychology programs to promote the equitable and respectful treatment of graduate students throughout their education and training so that students may fully benefit from their graduate education and maximize their potential within and beyond their graduate programs.
For those members who may also do some work in applied areas, the Council voted 144-13, with one abstention, to amend the Association Rules to establish a Committee for the Advancement of General Applied Psychology. The Committee’s purpose will be to promote, in settings outside the direct delivery of health care services, the utilization, application and advancement of science where psychologists work to enhance performance, learning, and well-being of individuals, groups, organizations, and society as a whole.
APA declared that the third week in April is Psychology Week. The United Nations participates in this endeavor. The theme for this year’s webinar is Psychological Contributions to Global Peace, Conflict Resolution, and Equity. If you would like to register for the Psychology Day at the United Nations webinar, organized by the Psychology Coalition at the United Nations (PCUN; https://psychologycoalitionun.org/), you may register online for the webinar, which is scheduled for April 27, 11:00am-2:00pm Eastern.
STP Instagram Account
Did you know that STP now has an Instagram account? If you are on Instagram, check us out at https://www.instagram.com/stpteachpsych/.
Annual Conference on Teaching
Finally, the call for submissions for our Annual Conference on Teaching will be available soon. Please consider submitting and joining us in Portland (OR) or online. Director Lindsay Masland is planning some wonderful things for the West Coast!
This month, I am pleased to introduce Dr. Danae Hudson, VP for Membership, as my guest columnist. Danae is working diligently with her committees to increase membership and make membership attractive. They are also working to expand membership to underrepresented groups within the teaching of psychology. Danae is the Coordinator of the Clinical Graduate Program at Missouri State University where she also teaches at the undergraduate level.
The Age of Disengagement?
Danae Hudson, Vice President for Membership
As teaching during a global pandemic shifted back from Zoom to the classroom, many of us were excited to “get back to normal.” Unfortunately, like many other areas of life, teaching and learning felt different. Now three years into the COVID-19 pandemic, it has become clear that students are different. Hallway, Twitter, and STP Facebook group conversations have a similar theme. A recent poster wrote, “This is the first time in nearly 20 years that I've had [exam] scores this bad. I've also taught this course multiple times and have never seen anything like this before. In general, there is something going on with this class where I'm seeing multiple students just being really out of it. Not paying attention, missing deadlines, not participating at all...” The gift of our STP Facebook group is this poster quickly realized they were not alone, and that this overwhelmed and exasperated sentiment is commonplace.
We have experienced the same thing at my institution, Missouri State University, where my three colleagues and I teach over 1300 Introductory Psychology students each fall. Between us, we have over 80 years of teaching experience and none of us had ever experienced a semester like we did in the fall of 2022. We were faced with underprepared and seemingly unmotivated students. We had more academic integrity violations than we had ever issued in the past 10 years (this was confounded because we naïvely thought using video proctoring to monitor students taking exams was a good idea --- it was not, but that is another column for another day.) It was an exhausting and demoralizing semester for all of us. With so many of us having similar experiences, the question becomes: what do we do?
There does seem to be some consensus that students appear disengaged, and it can be tempting to fall back into a defensive position where we claim that our teaching has not changed, our courses have not changed, and therefore the students just need to get the message. But I have always seen myself as an instructor who solves classroom problems, and this problem is one that may need a novel approach.
As with any scientific question, we need to start by generating hypotheses. And in this case, there are many:
· Traditionally aged college students spent most of their high school years during the height of the pandemic. As a result, they did not learn many of the skills needed to be successful in college (e.g., how to read a text, how to study, how to participate and contribute to group work).
· Many students were given the message during COVID of “do what you have to do to get through.” There was nothing inherently wrong with this message, but unfortunately it resulted in many students cheating to complete assignments and exams. Repeatedly engaging in this behavior with few consequences has changed how some students view academic integrity.
· Many of our students have had COVID at least once and therefore there will be a proportion of our students experiencing long COVID symptoms that are undoubtedly affecting their ability to concentrate on their studies.
· Mental health issues have reached extremely high and concerning levels. As Jean Twenge recently reported in Time, close to one in three high school girls seriously considered suicide in 2021, which is a 60% increase from 2011. These are the students in our classes.
· The APA’s Stress in America report from 2022 indicated that approximately 75% of Americans reported experiencing physical or mental symptoms of stress. The majority of adults reported feeling disheartened by government and political divisiveness, plagued by historic inflation levels, and overwhelmed by widespread violence. These are the topics on our students’ minds while attempting to take numerous classes and likely working many hours to pay for their education.
There are likely many more hypotheses we could generate. But even just looking at these, we can appreciate why our students are struggling. The problem is multifaceted, and therefore our solutions must also be diverse and tailored to specific student needs. For example, Wake Forest University uses academic coaches to teach students how to develop a comprehensive syllabus (the term WFU uses) --- a detailed spreadsheet that includes all assignments and assessments for all classes. Academic coaches woven into first year classes may be an answer for underprepared students. However, they are most likely not the answer for our students who are experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety that are interfering with their ability to complete assignments. In a time of shrinking budgets for higher education coupled with concerns about enrollment, increased funding for mental health services on campus (although desperately needed) is unlikely to occur. Perhaps there is a way for those institutions with graduate programs in clinical psychology, counseling, and social work, to work together to develop assessment, triage, and mental health services for our students who are seeking help.
Maybe it is time for us to rethink some of the content we teach in our classes. Introductory Psychology is a perfect course to address some of the issues we are facing. We know students are unlikely to remember the specifics of classical conditioning much past the end of the course. And, thanks to the APA’s Introductory Psychology Initiative, we now have student learning outcomes for Introductory Psychology that include integrative themes. Theme F states “applying psychological principles can change our lives, organizations, and communities in positive ways.” Could we redesign Introductory Psychology to use the content and skills ingrained in this course to help our “disengaged” students? This transformation would not be quick or easy, but I am convinced that as teachers of psychology, we are in a unique position to help address these issues that are plaguing our students and clouding our educational landscape.
American Psychological Association. (2022). Stress in America. https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/stress/
Gurung, A. R. & Neufeld, G. (2019). The Introductory Psychology Initiative. American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/ed/precollege/undergrad/introductory-psychology-initiative/pilot
Twenge, J. (2023. February 14). Teen girls are facing a mental health epidemic. We are doing nothing about it. Time. https://time.com/6255448/teen-girls-mental-health-epidemic-causes/
I hope your March has not come in like the proverbial lion although I am seeing a lot of unpleasant weather around! Please don’t let that dampen your enthusiasm for teaching and your students.
This month I want to talk a bit about our high school colleagues. Kristin Whitlock, our VP for Programming is my guest columnist. (The link brings you to more information about Kristin’s accomplishments). I want to give some history and context of high school psychology for those who may not be familiar with it.
High school psychology did not really exist when I was in high school, lo these many years ago. I first encountered it when I became a reader for the Advanced Placement Psychology exam. I started as a Reader in the early years when we really got to know all of the readers. As I became acquainted with the high school teachers participating in the Reading, I was gobsmacked! (One of my favorite British terms). They knew so much more than I did about the breadth of psychology plus they could read any handwriting when we, college faculty, were struggling to read essays.
High school psychology has existed in some form, albeit with various names, for over 150 years (Benjamin, 2001). In 1992, Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools (TOPSS) was formed by APA. Since then they have published National Standards, adopted by APA and also have published multiple lessons on common topics in Introductory psychology. I have used their lessons many times and point new faculty to these for ready-made activities. TOPSS has been working to move psychology into the science curriculum, rather than the social science area. They are now sponsoring annual workshops at Clark University and at Oregon State University. There are about 840,000 high school students who take psychology each year and Advanced Placement Psychology is the 6th most popular AP course. I could go on with more high school teacher accomplishments but I want space for Kristin’s thoughts. (Thanks to Emily Chesnes of APA for some of this information; you can read more information here).
When I really look at all that is required of high school teachers, I am exhausted. They generally teach five or six sections of courses every day with 30 or more students in each. They are expected to help with extracurricular activities as well as tutor students. They serve on committees and help prepare students for AP and other college exams. As society expects them to be social workers, financial literacy teachers, counselors, surrogate parents, and many other roles, I marvel that they have the time needed to plan lessons and actually teach. I hear a lot of complaints on social media about how unprepared high school students are when they come to college but that has not really been my experience when students have completed high school psychology. STP is fortunate to have so many high school teachers willing to give time and energy to our endeavors. So, the next time you run into a high school teacher, thank them!
My Connection to Psychology
Lately I’ve been reflecting on the events and people that have influenced the development of my teaching identity. I am not sure why I’ve been feeling this so keenly lately, but it might be due to being in my 33rd year in the classroom. I feel so blessed to be surrounded with so many wonderful psychology instructors and to have so many resources within my easy reach. But when I began teaching it was a much different story. I felt the lack of a community intensely despite being in a large school. For much of my career, I’ve been the only psychology teacher in a social studies department filled with history teachers. My colleagues have been, and continue to be, wonderful, but they didn’t have the background to help me establish my identity as a psychology teacher. I was so unprepared to teach the science of psychology.
My first introduction to a larger psychology community was as a participant at the National Science Foundation Psychology Institute at Texas A & M University in 1994. With Dr. Ludy Benjamin, and a group of incredibly talented high school and college faculty, I found exactly what I needed. I learned the content of psychology, as well as creative and pedagogically sound ways to engage students. It was also here that I learned about the APA’s Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools. I couldn’t believe there actually existed an organization that was just for me. The resources available, such as lesson plans and the National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula, were absolutely invaluable. To this day, TOPSS is still a vital resource for me. When I left Texas A & M, Dr. Benjamin challenged all of us to “go home, and do something” to help build psychology education.
My first opportunity to give back came when Dr. Irwin Altman, at the University of Utah, contacted me about starting a grass-roots organization for high school psychology teachers in our state. Along with other passionate educators, we established the Utah-Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools (UTOPSS) in 1997. We have held our annual fall teaching conference every year, minus 2020, growing from about a dozen participants in 1997 to over 70 in 2022. In a unique partnership, Westminster College, in Salt Lake City, and UTOPSS collaborate to improve the teaching of scientific psychology at the high school level. This conference provides opportunities for teachers to learn new content, obtain new teaching resources, and build professional networks. We’ve hosted amazing high school and college faculty presenters. It is the only professional development offered to all high school psychology teachers in our state and surrounding areas. As a group, we look forward each year to reconnecting and learning together.
My professional learning community has continued to grow with my membership and involvement in the Society for the Teaching of Psychology (STP). I’m deeply appreciative of the many wonderful colleagues that I have worked with and learned from in this incredible group. Along with quality conference programming, it is a deep dive into the many resources STP has to offer, including the journal Teaching of Psychology, free eBooks, Project Syllabus, and more. When I began teaching this course, the challenge was finding solid resources; today, it’s almost overwhelming how many peer-reviewed resources are so readily available.
Yet, there is still work to be done! There are still too many instructors that are working in isolation that would deeply benefit from the work of both TOPSS and STP. It’s time for each of us to “do something” to improve the teaching of scientific psychology. Help us get the word out to new colleagues in your departments and local schools. Resources exist to help you develop regional teaching networks, such as UTOPSS. TOPSS publishes a guide to the process called Building, Guiding, and Sustaining Regional Networks For Psychology Teachers, that is easily available online. If you are interested, but concerned about starting from scratch, look on the TOPSS webpage to see what networks might currently exist in your area. You’ll find contact information for those who are currently involved. There are so many ways that you can give back and express the gratitude you feel for the benefits you have received as a member of our community.
References and Resources
APA (2018). Building, Guiding, and Sustaining Regional Networks For Psychology Teachers. regional-networks-guide.pdf (apa.org)
APA (2019, March) Report of High School Psychology
Benjamin, L. T. (2001). A brief history of the psychology course in American high schools. American Psychologist 56(11):951-60. Doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.56.11.951
National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula
Professional Development for High School Psychology Teachers
Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools
Happy February! Did you know that the word February comes from the Latin “februa” which means to cleanse? The month was named after the Roman festival of Februalia which was a month of atonement and purification. I have always found this interesting since we in the United States do not view February in this fashion. We tend to focus on Valentine’s Day and all that holiday represents in current society. As I learned about the actual history of the day, the connections began to make more sense. (Check history.com for information). How do these two views of the month reconcile? Some experts think the emphasis on love is an attempt to Christianize the pagan festival which had overtones of fertility. I do not think we will ever know, and I think that having time dedicated to love is sorely needed in today’s world. Throughout the year, I will be having guest columnists since I do want to “invite everyone in” (my Presidential theme).
This month, Dr. Stephanie Afful, from Lindenwood University, is sharing her thoughts. She is currently the Secretary for STP. She does an amazing job of taking minutes and keeping the Executive Committee on track with to-do lists and past votes. I have known Stephanie for a long time since she served as the first Chair for the Early Career Psychologists Committee which was started during my tenure as VP for Membership. I have always been awed by her dedication to teaching and by her energy. I know you will enjoy her ideas and I am sure she will welcome comments and discussion.
The Month of Love
Dr. Stephanie Afful
February is the month of love, the month where we can celebrate our love of football, of boxed chocolates, of Galantines, and maybe even our love of teaching! One of the reasons I love teaching is that the classroom (both physical and virtual) is a sacred space where we can practice social justice, one in which we can lean into difficult discussions, widen our perspectives, gain empathy and awareness. bell hooks (1994) said of transformational pedagogy "the classroom remains the most radical space of possibility in the academy" (p. 12). And as discussion of Black history should last all year (not just for these 28 days), we might think about how to introduce, continue, or even reignite our passion for social justice and its pedagogical implications.
There are many opportunities to model activism and advocacy in your courses. In my social psychology course, each semester the students pick a non-profit organization for which we fundraise using different compliance strategies (modeled after this Action Teaching award winner). It has been wildly successful in terms of not only funds raised but also in the agency instilled in the students. If you have not checked out this website on Action Teaching, treat yo self (also wondering how many Parks and Rec references I can work into this newsletter).
My colleague, Dr. Sara Bagley, designed a service-learning project where students engaged with aging adults in the community as part of her Learning and Memory course (see examples here). The LU Memory Makers project had students develop events with engaging activities for mental stimulation and opportunities for intergenerational socialization throughout the semester. Not only did the events bring smiles to faces (like decorating gingerbread houses), but it allowed students’ knowledge enhancement through community connections and the community members the opportunity to interact in different ways.
If you are wondering how your courses may fit into this, I have the answer! STP recently published an e-book on Empowering students as change agents (Forner & Katzarska-Miller, 2022). This book details how to build skills with your students as they engage in community partnerships and practice advocacy. And we still have much to learn from each other. You may also consider sharing an activity from your courses in the new proposed e-book Applying Psychology Beyond the Classroom: Social Justice Activities for Intro and Upper-Level Courses.
I hope you take a few moments this month to savor your love for teaching, to also give yourself grace and self-compassion, and to think about ways to integrate advocacy in your courses—so that we may be engaged and critically conscious in the spaces we occupy.
Fortner, M., & Katzarska-Miller, I. (Eds.). (2022). Empowering students as change agents in psychology courses. Society for the Teaching of Psychology. https://teachpsych.org/ebooks/empoweringstudents
hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. Taylor & Francis.