Society for the Teaching of Psychology: Division 2 of the American Psychological Association


General Issues about Culture


Brislin, R. (2000). Understanding culture’s influence on behavior (2nd ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers.

Defines culture as shared values and concepts among people who live in proximity to one another that provides guidance for everyday behavior that is passed down from generation to generation.

Chiu, C-Y., & Hong, Y. (2006). Social psychology of culture. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

This textbook for advanced undergraduate-level and graduate-level courses addresses the meaning and development of culture and its role psychological processes. Chapter topics include: What is culture?; Strategies for describing culture; Psychological foundations of human culture; What is culture for?; Culture as mental habits; Culture, self, and others; Events and norms; Organization and application of cultural knowledge; Reproduction of culture and culture change; Intercultural contacts; Globalization and multicultural identities; and Scientific study of cultural processes.

Gallardo, M. E., Yeh, C. J., Trimble, J. E., & Parham, T. A. (Eds.). (2011). Culturally adaptive counseling skills: Demonstrations of evidence-based practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This multicultural counseling text is divided into sections with chapters addressing African American, Latino/a, Asian American and Pacific Islander, North American Indian and Alaska Native, and Middle Eastern American client populations.  Intersectionality is addressed throughout with discussions of disability, sexual orientation, age, and gender.

Gannon, M. J., & Pillai, R. K.  (2009). Understanding global cultures: Metaphorical journeys through 31 nations, clusters of nations, continents, and diversity . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Presents cultural metaphors (e.g., the Italian opera, the Turkish coffeehouse, the Japanese garden) as a strategy for understanding cultural mind sets.

Hall, E., & Hall, M. (1990). Understanding cultural differences. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

A summary of Edward T. Hall’s lifetime of work on evaluating high- versus low-context communication cultures.

Heine, S.  (2011). Cultural Psychology (2nd ed).New York, NY: W. W. Norton.

This undergraduate text integrates qualitative and quantitative research from across the globe to explore the role of culture in human behavior. Chapters address a wide range of topics across domains of psychology. Some of these include:  Cultural evolution; methods for studying culture and psychology; development and socialization; self and personality; motivation; morality, religion, and justice; emotions; cognition and perception; physical health, mental health; and  interpersonal attraction, close relationships, and groups; and living in multicultural worlds.

Helms, J. E., & Cook, D. A. (1999). Using race and culture in counseling and psychotherapy: Theory and practice. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Defines culture as values, beliefs, language, rituals, traditions, etc., passed from one generation to the next within a social group.

Herskovits, M. J. (1955). Cultural dynamics. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Discusses culture as learned patterns of behavior created by people.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

An update of Hofstede’s classic study of dimensions of culture.

Kluckhohn, F., & Strodtbeck, F. (1961). Variations in value orientations. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.

A classical evaluation of cultures using the dimensions of the nature of people, the relations of people to nature, the relations between people, the primary mode of activity, the conception of space, and the conception of time.

Kroeber, A. L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. New York: Vintage Books.

Discusses the many different definitions and conceptions of culture.

Matsumoto, D., & Juang, L. (2012). Culture and Psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

This text presents cross-cultural research findings on a wide variety of topics including: language, perception, gender, health, psychological disorders, the self, and other key areas of psychology.  

McGoldrick, M., Giordano, J., & Garcia-Preto, N. (Eds.). (2005). Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford.

This is the third edition of the very successful book on family therapy with ethnic minority populations. What makes this book unique is that it has over 50 chapters on conducting family therapy with families from different countries, not just the four broad ethnicities generally covered in books of this type. For example, the book does not just have a chapter on Latino families but on countries such as Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. It also contains chapters on families from Arab countries, Armenia, India, Pakistan, Cambodia, Vietnam, Germany, Hungary, Israel, and Poland, among others.

Mio, J. S., Barker, L. A., & Tumambing, J. S. (2012). Multicultural psychology: Understanding our diverse communities (3rd. ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

The third edition of this text combines research findings with first person narratives to explore a wide array of topics in multicultural psychology.  Chapters address the function and nature of multicultural psychology; multicultural issues in research and testing; cultural differences in worldview; cultural differences in communication; immigrants, refugees, and the acculturation process; stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination, and racism;  cultural identity development; culture and health; culture and mental health; and multicultural competence.

Mio, J. S., & Iwamasa, G. Y. (Eds.). (2003). Culturally diverse mental health: The challenges of research and resistance. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

This book discusses the four major ethnic groups and also has chapters on “diverse nonethnic populations,” such as women, individuals who are deaf, LGB populations, elderly populations, and individuals who practice diverse religions.

Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

The author addresses human development from as a cultural process, with a focus on how cultural matters, with attention to similarities and differences in cultural communities.

Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2012). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (6th ed.). New York: Wiley.

A comprehensive text on the theory, research, and practice of multicultural counseling.

Tylor, E. (1891). The primitive culture. New York: John Murray.

One of the earliest definitions of culture in the literature. This definition considers culture to be a complex whole of all aspects of a society.

Triandis, H. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview.

A classic book that evaluates cultures according to the individualism–collectivism versus horizontal–vertical dimensions.

Articles and Chapters

Christensen, C. P. (1989). Cross-cultural awareness development: A conceptual model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 22, 270–289.

Discusses culture as commonalities that form norms in societies based upon life-styles, social factors, and other kinds of behaviors due to historical, political, economic, and social realities.

Marsella, A.J., (2010). Ethnocultural aspects of PTSD: An overview of concepts, issues, and treatments. Traumatology, 16, 17-26.

This article provides an overview of ethnocultural aspects of PTSD and its treatment. The author describes the ethnocultural factors that play a significant role in the etiology, symptomatology, course, and outcome of PTSD. A "trauma event-person ecology" model is presented to identify factors that influence the outcome of trauma within and across cultures.

Marsella, A.J., Johnson, J., Watson, P., & Gryzycnski (Eds.). (2008). Ethnocultural perspectives on disasters and trauma.NY: Springer SBM

Chapters in this edited volume, contributed by experts in trauma, post-traumatic stress and crisis intervention, provide insights into working with specific ethnic/racial communities during disasters. The emotional, psychological, and social needs and strengths of these communities are addressed.

Mio, J. S., Barker-Hackett, L., & Tumambing, J. (2006). Differences in worldviews. In J. S. Mio, L. Barker-Hackett, & J. Tumambing (Eds.), Multicultural psychology: Understanding our diverse communities (pp. 57–83). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

An undergraduate textbook on multicultural psychology that devotes a chapter to cultural differences in worldview.

Stutman, G., & Brady-Amoon, P. (2011). Supporting dependent relatives of undocumented immigrants through psychological hardship evaluations. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 11(5), 369-390. doi:10.1080/15228932.2011.583909

This article reviews the psychological effects of immigration on individuals and families and provides guidelines for psychologists seeking to support the work of attorneys assisting undocumented immigrants and their qualified relatives.

Trimble, J. (2003). Cultural competence and cultural sensitivity. In M. Prinstein & M. Patterson, (Eds.), The portable mentor: Expert guide to a successful career in psychology (pp. 13–32). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

Achieving true cultural competence and cultural sensitivity is complex and daunting. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a framework for achieving and maintaining cultural competence and cultural sensitivity. To achieve the goal, the chapter is organized along several key points where cultural competence and sensitivity are salient and prerequisites for conducting research and providing psychological services. The chapter’s last section focuses on cross-cultural methodological and procedural concerns including gaining entry to the field, cultural measurement equivalence, and collecting data and reporting findings.

Trimble, J. E. (2006). Enriching introductory psychology with race and ethnicity: Considerations for history of psychology, biopsychology, and intelligence measurement. In D. S. Dunn & S. L. Chew (Eds.), Best practices in teaching introductory psychology (pp. 93–109). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

The fundamental purpose of this chapter is to provide sufficient material for the enrichment of an introductory psychology course or even advanced course with material concerning the history and influence of the race and ethnicity constructs in psychology. The chapter’s purposes are threefold; (a) To provide an overview of a range of various definitions and perspectives on the definition of race and ethnicity in the social and behavioral sciences; (b) To provide classroom exercises and materials for the inclusion of race and ethnicity in the teaching of sections on the history of psychology, biopsychology, and measurement; and (c) To provide numerous reference citations for use in following up on the various treatises and arguments written about the two disputatious constructs.

Vazsonyi, A. T., & Chen, P. (2010). Entry risk into the juvenile justice system: African American, American Indian, Asian American, European American, and Hispanic children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(6), 668-678. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02231.x

This study investigated whether entry risk into juvenile justice varies across ethnic/racial groups and sought to identify predictors of entry risk.  Data was collected from African American, American Indian, Asian American, European American, and Hispanic youth.  Childhood physical aggressive behavior was found to increase entry risk.  Some evidence indicated an elevated risk for Hispanic youth.  Recommendations for interventions are presented.  

Wong, P. T. P., & Wong, L. C. J. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of multicultural perspectives on stress and coping. New York: Springer.

This edited volume shows how diverse world views shape the stress and coping process. It also addresses various practical issues ranging from family problems to acculturation from different cultural perspectives.

Ethnic Minority Cultures

African Americans—Books

Belgrave, F. Z., & Allison, K. W. (2005). African American psychology: From Africa to America. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Discusses aspects of the African American experiences in the United States. The book is designed as a textbook for African American psychology or Ethnic and Black Studies courses, discussing theory and research from both an American and an Afrocentric perspective.

Burlew, A. K. H., Banks, W. C., McAdoo, H. P., & Azibo, D. A. y. (Eds.). (1992). African American psychology: Theory, research, and practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

This book presents issues that have been covered in the Journal of Black Psychology in a form that is accessible to those who do not subscribe to the journal. Topics covered include methodology, the Afrocentric paradigm, three generational family issues, internalized racism, self-esteem in Black children, educational and psychological testing, cognitive style, and improving health outcomes for African Americans.

Coner-Edwards, A. F., & Spurlock, J. (Eds.). (1988). Black families in crisis: The middle class. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

This book discusses important issues for middle-class African American families—an often overlooked segment of the African American community. Issues include male–female relationships, parenting, education, substance abuse, and treating couples.

Jackson, L. C., & Greene, B. (Eds.). (2000). Psychotherapy with African American women: Innovations in psychodynamic perspectives and practice. New York: Guilford.

The book discusses issues important to African American women from a psychodynamic perspective. Topics include interweaving cultural and intrapsychic issues, lesbians and bisexual women, racial trauma, racial transference and countertransference, and iconic strong Black women.

Jones, R. L. (Ed.). (1972). Black psychology. New York: Harper & Row.

The first book entirely devoted to Black psychology. Topics covered include racism, Black identity development, and the context of White psychology within which Blacks are evaluated.

Neville, H. A., Tynes, B. M., & Utsey, S. O. (2009). Handbook of African American psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This handbook addresses theoretical, empirical, and practical issues central to African American psychology including Africentric personality theories, religion and spirituality, Black families, media portrayals, racism and resistance, educational issues, group identity, physical and mental health, and therapeutic interventions.

Parham, T. A., Ajamu, A., &  White, J. L. (2010). The psychology of Blacks: Centering our perspectives in the African consciousness (4rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Presents the limitations of traditional psychological theories and approaches when applied to people of African descent and stresses the importance of the African Centered Perspective in terms of understanding the African American family, identity development, and mental health. 

Pinkney, A. (1993). Black Americans (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

The author takes a sociological perspective to discuss issues of importance to African Americans, such as AIDS, adolescent pregnancy, crack cocaine, and the aftermath of the Rodney King trial.

White, J. L. (1984). The psychology of Blacks: An Afro-American perspective. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

One of the early books on African American psychology, this book discusses issues such as racism and Black identity development.

White, J. L., & Parham, T. A. (1990). The psychology of Blacks: An African American perspective (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

This second edition on Black psychology discusses issues important to the Black community from the new African American perspective—a perspective that encourages African Americans to identify with their African roots.

African Americans—Articles and Chapters

Barker-Hackett, L. (2003). African Americans in the new millennium: A continued search for our true identity. In J. S. Mio & G. Y. Iwamasa (Eds.), Culturally diverse mental health: The challenges of research and resistance (pp. 121–140). New York: Brunner-Mazel.

This chapter explores the issue of identity, from “Black,” to “African American,” to “African.” It concludes that because African Americans live in the context of the United States, it is most appropriate to explore the unique experiences of African Americans in this country, thus the “African American” identity is more appropriate than the “African” identity advocated by some in the field.

Black, L., & Jackson, V. (2005). Families of African origin: An overview. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 77–86). New York: Guilford.

This is an overview of issues related to African Americans, including immigration history, spirituality, gender differences, class, sociopolitical issues, and sexual orientation.

Bridges, E. (2010). Racial identity development and psychological coping strategies of African American males at a predominantly white university. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 13, 14-26.

This article investigates how stressors faced by African American men affect relationships with other African Americans. The author identifies dilemmas that African American men face which generate stress experiences and group-specific identity conflicts. The author discusses environmental issues that are relevant to the psychological health of African American males, such as racism, the need to adapt to White institutions and culture, remaining situated in the African American community, and coping with limited social and political power.

Hines, P. M., & Boyd-Franklin, N. (2005). African American families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 87–100). New York: Guilford.

This chapter discusses issues such as kinship bonds, gender roles, parent–child systems, religion and spirituality, and therapy issues with African American families.

Jang, Y., Borenstein, A.R., Chiriboga, D.A., Phillips, K., & Mortimer, J.A. (2006). Religiosity, adherence to traditional culture, and psychological well-being among African American elders. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 25, 343-355.

This study assessed the associations among religiosity, adherence to traditional African American culture, and psychological well-being. The direct effect of religiosity was found to be significant for both depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. A significant interaction between religiosity and adherence to African American culture was observed in the prediction of life satisfaction. The results demonstrate that the benefits of religiosity do not exist uniformly across all African Americans but vary by the level of adherence to traditional culture.

Kamya, H. (2005). African immigrant families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 101–116). New York: Guilford.

This is a new chapter added to the McGoldrick et al. book, focusing on issues of immigration from Africa. These issues involve colonialism in both African and the United States, acculturation, relations to one’s home country, and issues of racism that are unique to African immigrants.

American Indians—Books

DuBray, W. (1993). American Indian values: Mental health interventions with people of color. St. Paul, MN: West.

This book discusses American Indian values and suggests that American Indian clients prefer concrete, practical advice in therapy.

Duran, E. (2006). Healing the soul wound: Counseling with American Indians and other Native Peoples. New York: Teachers College Press.

This book discusses issues that relate to conducting therapy with American Indian populations. It discusses American Indian values and how Western culture has disrupted the American Indian sense of connection with the land and its spirits. Mental health problems are characterized as spirits visiting the individual instead of being part of the individual.

Spicer, P., Farrell, P., Sarche, M. C., & Fitzgerald, H. E. (Eds.). (2011). American Indian and Alaska Native children and mental health: Development, context, prevention, and treatment. Westport, CT: Praeger.

This edited volume includes chapters on the mental health challenges of American Indian and Alaska Native children such as historical trauma, economic conditions, fetal alcohol spectrum, and ethnic identity development. Chapters also address intervention strategies and resources within families and communities.

Witko, T. (Ed.). (2006). Mental health care for urban Indians: Clinical insights from native practioners. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

This book is written by Native American scholars who work within the Native American communities. It provides a historical context of the impact of colonization on Native American culture. The repercussions related to urban migration and boarding schools on cultural identity, mental health care issues, and treatment are addressed by Native American practitioners.

American Indians—Articles and Chapters

Gone, J. P. (2003). American-Indian mental health service delivery: Persistent challenges and future prospects. In J. S. Mio & G. Y. Iwamasa (Eds.), Culturally diverse mental health: The challenges of research and resistance (pp. 211–229). New York: Brunner-Routledge.

This chapter discusses how mental health service delivery has traditionally been within the realm of the Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS has traditionally fallen short of its promise to provide comprehensive health service to American Indians. The author suggests using underutilized community services, such as community psychology and Native healers to fill in the gaps the IHS has left.

Kaufman, C.E., Desserich, J., Crow, C.K., Rock, B.H., Keane, E., & Mitchell, C.M. (2007). Culture, context, and sexual risk among Northern Plains American Indian youth. Social Science & Medicine, 64, 2152-2164.

This article used data from focus groups, in-depth interviews, and surveys with American Indian adolescents and young male and female adults from a Northern Plains tribe to investigate sexual risk and avoidance. Issues addressed include the role of substance use in sexual risk, attitudes about condom use, and cultural influences on American Indian sexual health and prevention strategies.

McDonald, J. D., & Chaney, J. M. (2003). Resistance to multiculturalism: The “Indian problem.” In J. S. Mio & G. Y. Iwamasa (Eds.), Culturally diverse mental health: The challenges of research and resistance (pp. 39–53). New York: Brunner-Routledge.

This chapter discusses the value clashes between American Indians and the dominant Western cultures, leading to the exclusion of American Indians in the discussion of issues of culture. Part of this painful past has been the attempt of Europeans to wipe out American Indians and/or their cultures. A way of overcoming these disadvantages that modern day American Indians face is to train more in professions such as psychology.

Sutton, C. T., & Broken Nose, M. A. (2005). American Indian families: An overview. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 43–54). New York: Guilford.

This chapter is an overview of American Indians in the United States. It describes the history of Western contact with American Indians, values, genocide, communication styles, and other issues important to the understanding of this population in therapy.

Tafoya, N., & Del Vecchio, A. (2005). Back to the future: An examination of the Native American holocaust experience. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 55–63). New York: Guilford.

This is a powerful chapter that discusses how American Indians were nearly wiped out after coming in contact with European cultures, and then how the United States government tried to wipe out the culture of American Indians by taking their children by force and trying to indoctrinate these children into Western concepts through the boarding school phenomenon.

Trimble, J. E. (2003). Infusion of American Indian and Alaska Native topics in psychology. In P. Bronstein & K. Quina (Eds.), Teaching gender and multicultural awareness: Resources for the psychology classroom (pp. 221–236). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Substantial psychological and sociocultural information is now available about American Indians and Alaska Natives. The goal of this chapter is to provide guidelines and resources for infusing some of this information into psychology courses. This approach can provide students with the opportunity to compare and contrast the information with conventional presentations of psychological topics, much of which is Euro-American-centric, individual-focused, and therefore, culturally encapsulated. The infusion of American Indian and Alaska Native topics can expand students' understanding of diverse cultures, and enhance their worldview to include an acceptance of alternative perspectives on human and social behavior.

Trimble, J. E., Fleming, C. M., Beauvais, F., & Jumper-Thurman, P. (1996). Essential cultural and social strategies for counseling Native American Indians. In P. B. Pedersen, J. G. Draguns, W. J. Lonner, & J. E. Trimble (Eds.), Counseling across cultures (4th ed., pp. 177–209). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This chapter discusses numerous aspects of American Indian populations, from history to the number of Native communities to values to the kinds of characteristics of clients who might come in to treatment. It focuses on acculturation issues of the client, where clients may be acculturated into mainstream society versus those who maintain traditional cultural practices.

Asian Americans—Books

Hall, G. C. N., & Okazaki, S. (Eds.) (2002). Asian American psychology: The science of lives in context. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

This book focuses on issues of research with Asian/Pacific Islander populations. Such issues include the use of questionnaires, ethnic identity, aging, career choices, and multiracial Asians.

Lee, E. (Ed.). (1997). Working with Asian Americans: A guide for clinicians. New York: Guilford.

This book is practice oriented. It discusses values and traditions from various countries of origin (e.g., Cambodia, China, India, Philippines, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam), specific diagnostic topics (e.g., schizophrenia, depression, and PTSD), treatment modalities (e.g., psychoanalysis, monolingual psychological testing, and medications), and special issues (e.g., gay and lesbian issues, intermarriage, and domestic violence).

Leong, F. T. L., Inman, A. G., Ebreo, A., Yang, L. H., Kinoshita, L., & Fu, M. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of Asian American psychology (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This is a compendium of Asian American psychology. It focuses on pan-Asian issues as opposed to separate populations within the API spectrum. These issues include history, resilience, youth, the elderly, ethnic identity, acculturation, racism, international students, family violence, and assessment.

Liu, W. M., Iwamoto, D. K., & Chae, M. Culturally Responsive Counseling with Asian American Men. New York. Routledge Press.

This text provides an overview of research findings that may serve as an important resource for clinicians working with Asian American men. Chapters are illustrated by case study vignettes and address such topics as intergenerational conflict, racism, challenges associated with masculinity and fatherhood, suicide, domestic violence, career development, sexual orientation identity development, substance abuse, and career counseling.

Wong, P. T. P., & Wong, L. C. J. (Eds.) (2006). Handbook of multicultural perspectives on stress and coping. New York: Springer.

This book focuses on how cultural differences in values and beliefs affect stress and coping. Several chapters deal with ethnic minorities.

Asian Americans—Articles and Chapters

Archambeau, O. G., Frueh, B. C., Deliramich, A. N., Elhai, J. D., Grubaugh, A. L., Herman, S., & Kim, B. S. K. (2010). Interpersonal violence and mental health outcomes among Asian American and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander college students. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 2(4), 273-283. doi:10.1037/a0021262

The authors collected data on interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration in response to the underrepresentation of Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders in studies of violence and trauma.  High rates interpersonal violence were found and exposure to physical violence, sexual violence, and life stress all were predictive of psychopathology.

Fancher, T. L., Ton, H., Le Meyer, O., Ho, T., & Paterniti, D. A. (2010). Discussing depression with Vietnamese American patients. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 12(2), 263-266. doi:10.1007/s10903-009-9234-y

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Vietnamese Americans regarding experiences with depression.  Four themes emerged:  (1) Stigma and face; (2) Social functioning and the role of the family; (3) Traditional healing and beliefs about medications; and (4) Language and culture. Based on these findings, the authors offer suggestions to primary care physicians regarding culturally appropriate strategies for interactions with an increasingly diverse patient population.

Jang, Y., Chiriboga, D. A., Kim, G., & Rhew, S. (2010). Perceived discrimination, sense of control, and depressive symptoms among Korean American older adults. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1(2), 129-135. doi:10.1037/a0019967

Based on a survey of 472 Korean American older adults, this study explored the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Results showed that perceived discrimination directly affects depressive symptoms and is also mediated through a lowered sense of control. Implications for intervention strategies are presented.

Lee, E., & Mock, M. R. (2005). Asian families: An overview. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 269–289). New York: Guilford.

This chapter is a general overview of families of Asian origin, including issues such as immigration history, trauma in their countries of origin, the “model minority” stereotype, psychopathology, service utilization, and family structures and subsystems.

Leong, F. T. L., & Okazaki, S. (2009). History of Asian American psychology. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15(4), 352-362. doi:10.1037/a0016443

This article provides an overview of the history of Asian American psychology including key events in the development of the field and the establishment of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA), significant contributions of the AAPA to national mental health policies, major areas of research in Asian American psychology, and critical issues in the training of Asian American psychologists.

Leong, F. T. L., & Wong, P. T. P. (2003). Optimal functioning from cross-cultural perspectives. In B. Walsh (Ed.), Counseling psychology and optimal human functioning (pp.123–150). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

This chapter focuses on how differences in cultural values affect people’s perception and practice of optimal functioning.

Liu, L.L., Wang, S-W., Fung, J., Gudiño, O.G., Tao, A., & Lau, A.S. (2012). Strengths

and challenges in the development of Asian American youth: Contributions of cultural

heritage and the minority experience. In E. Chang and C. Downey (Eds.) Mental health across

racial groups: Lifespan perspectives (pp. 147-167). New York: Springer.

This chapter discusses challenges and strengths associated with Asian American children’s mental health and well-being.  Cultural socialization, ethnic identity formation, and minority-related experiences are presented as central factors influencing the maintenance of mental health.

Machizawa, S., & Lau, D. T. (2010). Psychological needs of Japanese American elders: Implications for culturally competent interventions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 25(2), 183-197. doi:10.1007/s10823-010-9117-7

Based on in-depth interviews with older Japanese Americans , family, and community members, this article presents information on the psychological needs of Japanese American elders, including independence, cultural connection, social connection, feeling useful, and maintaining pride and dignity. These needs varied depending on life experiences, generation, acculturation level, gender, socioeconomic status, and proximity to family members.  Implications for mental health services are discussed. 

McKenzie-Pollack, L. (2005). Cambodian families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 290–301). New York: Guilford.

This chapter discusses the history and family issues regarding individuals from Cambodia. One of the major issues is that of trauma in the aftermath of the Khmer Rouge takeover of the country after the United States left the area after the Vietnam War.

Mio, J. S., Nagata, D. K., Tsai, A. H., & Tewari, N. (2007). Racism against Asian/Pacific Island Americans. In F. T. L. Leong, A. G. Inman, A. Ebreo, L. H. Yang, L. Kinoshita, & M. Fu (Eds.), Handbook of Asian American psychology (2nd ed., pp. 341–361). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This chapter discusses issues of stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination, and racism against those of Asian/Pacific Island descent. It discusses the history of immigration and how racist policies of the past attempted to keep Asians from immigrating to the United States, the specific racist issue of the internment of Americans of Japanese descent during World War II, and more modern forms of racism against South Asians.

Moon, A., & Cho, I. (2012). Psychology of Asian American older adults: Status, challenges, and strengths.  In E. C. Chang, & C. A. Downey (Eds.), Handbook of race and development in mental health (pp. 189-206).   New York, NY: Springer.  doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-0424-8_11

This chapter discusses the major challenges to the maintenance of mental health in older Asian Americans.  Challenges include stigmatization of mental illness, lack of mental health literacy, and underutilization of mental health services.  Strengths of this population are also discussed including familial and peer support, social networks ,and  religion/spirituality.

Okazaki, S., Kassem, A. M., & Tan, J. Y. (2011). Annual review of Asian American psychology: 2010.  Asian American Journal of Psychology, 2, 225-290.

This is a systematic and critical review of 261 research articles about Asian Americans published in 2010. Articles are summarized and coded for topic areas, research methodology, and populations studied. Trends in content and methodology are discussed.

Okazaki, S., & Saw, A. (2011). Culture in Asian American community psychology: Beyond the East-West binary. American Journal of Community Psychology, 47(1-2), 144-156.

This article presents a cultural-community framework designed to facilitate collaboration between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities.  Illustrations of the framework focus on Asian American communities and incorporate Hays’ ADDRESSING model of overlapping cultural influences in the counseling context.

Root, M. P. P. (2005). Filipino families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 319–331). New York: Guilford.

This chapter discusses the immigration history of Filipinos, who were citizens of the United States at one point because of the territorial status of The Philippines in the first half of the 20th century. It also discusses clinically relevant issues, such as immigration stress, communication, family structure, and religion.

Shen, F, C., Wang, Y.–W., & Swanson, J. L. (2011). Development and initial validation of the Internalization of Asian American Stereotypes Scale. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, Description:,Description: 283-294.

This article reports four studies validating the Internalization of Asian American Stereotypes Scale (IAASS), a self-report instrument that measures the degree to which Asian Americans have internalized racial stereotypes. A four-factor structure was supported for the IAASS, including:  Difficulties with English Language Communication, Pursuit of Prestigious Careers, Emotional Reservation, and Expected Academic Success. The reliability and validity of the measure was supported.

Sue, S., & Consolacion, T. B. (2003). Clinical psychology issues among Asian/Pacific Islander Americans. In J. S. Mio & G. Y. Iwamasa (Eds.), Culturally diverse mental health: The challenges of research and resistance (pp. 173–189). New York: Brunner-Routledge.

This chapter discusses topics such as rates of psychopathology for various kinds of disorders and mental health services and treatment. Interestingly, there is even some research on differences that Asian/Pacific Islander populations have in response to psychotropic medications, such as the need for less amounts of medication to achieve the same levels of clinical response.

Tran, N., & Birman, D. (2010). Questioning the model minority: Studies of Asian American academic performance. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1(2), 106-118. doi:10.1037/a0019965

This literature review of research on the academic performance of Asian Americans demonstrates that social science research has continued to perpetuate the stereotype of Asian Americans as a “model minority” and that culturally appropriate research methods have not been sufficiently implemented.

Wong, Y. J., Owen, J., Tran, K. K., Collins, D. L., & Higgins, C. E. (2012). Asian American male college students' perceptions of people's stereotypes about Asian American men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 13(1), 75-88. doi:10.1037/a0022800

This study investigated 158 Asian American male college students' perceptions of other's stereotypes about Asian American men. Based on participants' open-ended responses, the following categories of stereotypes were identified: (a) interpersonal deficits, (b) intelligence, (c) intense diligence, (d) unflattering physical attributes, (e) physical ability distortions, (f) perpetual foreigner, and (g) sexual/romantic inadequacies. Latent class cluster analysis revealed three clusters of participants: Body-Mind Stereotypes, Nerd Stereotypes, and Outsider Stereotypes, the last of which had the highest levels of depressive symptoms. 

Yeh, C.J. & Kwong, A. (2009). Asian American indigenous healing and coping. In  A. N. Alvarez, (Ed.), Asian American Psychology (pp. 559-574). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

This chapter highlights indigenous healing methods from an Asian perspective.  A case study is presented to capture some of the key issues relating to indigenous healing and facts and figures are also provided.


Cabrera, N. J., Villarruel, F. A., & Fitzgerald, H. E. (Eds.). (2011). Latina and Latino children’s mental health. Westport, CT: Praeger.

This two-volume resource includes information on “the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that undermine or support healthy development in Latino American children, from biology to economics to public policy. “

Gonzalez, J. (2000). A history of Latinos in America: Harvest of empire. New York: Viking.

This book discusses the growing influence of Latinos in America, including a growing percentage of the population and greater political participation.

Mirandé, A. (1997). Hombres y machos: Masculinity and Latino culture. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

This book discusses the important topic of the definition, meaning, and role of machismo in the Latino culture.

Quinones-Rosado, R. (2002). Empowerment, Latino identity, and the process of transformation: Writing for people in the struggle against racism. Caguas, PR: Institute for Latino Empowerment.

This book discusses the rise of Latino power in the United States, including issues of identity and the question of the term “Hispanic” versus “Latino.”

Villarruel, F. A., Carlo, G., & Grau, J. M. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of U. S. Latino psychology: Developmental and community-based perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chapters address culturally competent interventions and research for specific Latino/a populations and treatment issues.

Latinos—Articles and Chapters

Barbosa, P., Torres, H., Silva, M.A., & Khan, N. (2010). Agape Christian reconciliation conversations: Exploring the intersections of culture, religiousness, and homosexual identity in Latino and European Americans. Journal of Homosexuality, 57, 98-116.

In this article, the authors implemented a program to understand how homophobia displays itself through a Latino cultural lens of identity. The program included the screening of one of two documentary films about lesbian, gay and bisexual identity and family relations. Participants were asked to complete measures of homophobic attitudes and qualitative appraisal of the program. The authors found that both age and political ideology were related to homophobia. The article further investigates the complexities of the intersections of Christianity, culture, and attitudes toward homosexuality in an individual’s identity.

Bernal, G., Cumba-Avilies, E.,& Saez-Santiago, E. (2006). Cultural and relational processes in depressed Latino adolescents. In S.R. Beach, M.Z. Wamboldt, N. J. Kaslow, R. E. Heyman, M. B. First, L. G. Underwood, & D. Reiss, (Eds.),  Relational processes and DSM-V: Neuroscience, Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment (pp.211-224). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

This chapter focuses on cultural and relational processes in depressed Latino youth. It examines depression in adolescents, specifically Puerto Rican youth, and the epidemiology of depression is investigated along with the discussion of family and relational issues associated with youth depression.

Bernal, G., & Shapiro, E. (2005). Cuban families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 202–215). New York: Guilford.

This chapter focuses on the special relationship that Cuba has had with the United States, which relates to four distinct waves of immigration. The first wave was during the Cuban revolution, where primarily White Cubans who were middle and upper class professionals moved to the United States to avoid their possessions being taken by the revolutionary government. Subsequent waves included more Afro-Cubans who escaped Cuba and did not have the resources that the first wave did. Other clinically relevant issues are also discussed in this chapter, such as language, social support, and conceptualization of the family.

de las Fuentes, C. (2003). Latinos and mental health: At least you should know this. In J. S. Mio & G. Y. Iwamasa (Eds.), Culturally diverse mental health: The challenges of research and resistance (pp. 159–172). New York: Brunner-Routledge.

This chapter discusses many Latino values that are relevant for therapy. It connects these values to clinical cases so that the reader can see how they apply clinically. It also discusses issues such as acculturation, acculturative stress, and ethnic identity.

Falicov, C. J. (2005). Mexican families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 229–242). New York: Guilford.

This chapter discusses the issue of migration and immigration, connecting this issue with legal versus undocumented status. It also discusses some clinical implications of this issue, particularly since many families are now experiencing separation for long periods of time due to quite often the father working in the United States while his family stays in Mexico. This has implications for power differentials between the parents and issues of reunification.

Garcia-Preto, N. (2005). Latino families: An overview. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 153–165). New York: Guilford.

This chapter provides an overview of Latino families that discusses the links among the various Latino populations, such as the terms “Latino” versus “Hispanic.” It also discusses some of the specific populations (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Dominican) and some broader populations (Central Americans, South Americans).

Garcia-Preto, N. (2005). Puerto Rican families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 242–255). New York: Guilford.

This chapter discusses cultural issues, such as spirituality, respect, and the centrality of the family. It also discusses how Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States, so issues of migration are different for this population in comparison with other Latino populations.

Jason, C., & Bean, R.A. (2007). Culturally competent family therapy with Latino/Anglo-American adolescents: Facilitating identity formation. American Journal of Family Therapy, 35, 251-263.

This article focuses on culturally competent family therapy interventions, specifically on the topic of identity formation in Latino/Anglo American youth. Issues addressed include the ethnicity of the youth’s Latino parent, the youth’s appearance, acceptance from family members and peers, and cultural conflict within the home. Specific suggestions for culturally competent family therapy are provided and detailed using a case vignette.

Luis, H. & Torres, L.R. (2009). Culture and masculinity: When therapist and patient are Latino men. Clinical Social Work Journal, 37, 294-302.

This article describes treatment of a Latino male client by a Latino male clinician and explores issues of competence and self-doubt. The authors also discuss the challenges experienced by the clinician in terms of working with a man whose traditional upbringing is similar to his own. Finally, the authors address the framework of a dynamic interpersonal therapy and the challenges of transference, countertransference, and therapist disclosure.

Pappamihiel, N. E., & Moreno, M. (2011). Retaining Latino students: Culturally responsive instruction in colleges and universities. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 10(4), 331-344. doi:10.1177/1538192711410602

The authors describe culturally responsive college teaching (CRT) , which they present as a tool for promoting the success of  Latino/a students in traditionally White dominated colleges and universities.

Stacciarini, J.M., O’Keefe, M., & Matthews, M. (2007). Group therapy as treatment for depressed Latino women: A review of the literature. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 28, 473-488.

The purpose of this study was to identify successful forms of group therapy for Latino women, determine the type of studies that have been conducted on this topic, identify therapeutic factors to consider while dealing with this population in group therapy, and explore guidelines for conducting culturally sensitive groups for this population.

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