Society for the Teaching of Psychology

Division 2 of the American Psychological Association

Intersections

The bibliography provides references on the ways that ability, age, class, gender, race, sexual orientation and other dimensions of social identity intersect, and strategies for teaching about these intersections.

Books, Chapters, Journal Articles and Web Resources

Abeles, N. (1998). What practitioners should know about working with older adults. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29, 413–427.  http://www.apa.org/pi/aging/practitioners.pdf

Includes details on demographics of aging, commonly held myths about older adults, realities of aging, typical psychological problems of older adults, assessment and interventions, and relevant professional issues when working with older adults.

Acker, J. (2006). Inequality regimes: Gender, class, and race in organizations. Gender and Society, 20, 441–464.

How to conceptualize intersectionality; the mutual reproduction of class, gender, and racial relations of inequality; and how to identify barriers to creating equality in work organizations.

American Psychological Association. (2001). Guidelines to reduce bias in language. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed., pp. 61–76). Washington, DC: Author.

This section of Chapter Two includes the rationale for describing study participants at the appropriate level of specificity, being sensitive to labels, and acknowledging participation respectfully. It gives specific examples for writing appropriately about gender, sexual orientation, racial and ethnic identity, disabilities, and age.

American Psychological Association. (2006). Just the facts about sexual orientation and youth: A Primer for principals, educators and school personnel. Washington, DC: Author. http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbc/publications/justthefacts.html

This factsheet includes information on development of sexual orientation, critiques of reparative therapy and transformational ministries, relevant legal principles, and resources for educators. It has received broad endorsement from medical, psychological, educational, health, religious, and social work organizations.

Anderson, S. K., & Middleton, V. A. (2005) Explorations in privilege, oppression, and diversity. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

This edited book includes therapists' and faculty narratives addressing personal experiences and awareness regarding different aspects of identity.

Balsam, K. F., Molina, Y., Beadnell, B., Simoni, J., & Walters, K. (2011). Measuring multiple minority stress: The LGBT people of color microaggressions scale. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(2), 163-174. doi:10.1037/a0023244

Describes the construction and psychometric properties of  the LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale, an 18-item self-report measure that includes three subscales: Racism in LGBT communities, Heterosexism in Racial/Ethnic Minority Communities, and (c) Racism in Dating and Close Relationships. 

Berg, J. A. (2010). Race, class, gender, and social space: Using an intersectional approach to study immigration attitudes. The Sociological Quarterly, 51, 278-302.

The purpose of this article was to predict attitudes toward immigrants by examining the intersections of race, class, gender and social space. The author found important differences in attitudes between and within groups only when particular intersections were considered in the analysis. The author concludes that pro-immigrant organizations may gain greater support by devising political strategies from an intersectional perspective.

Biaggio, M., Orchard, S., Larson, J., Petrino, K., & Mihara, R. (2003). Guidelines for gay/lesbian/bisexual-affirmative educational practices in graduate psychology programs. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34, 548–554

Contains recommendations for inclusion of education about multiple sexual orientations within graduate psychology training programs.

Bronstein, P., & Quina, K. (Eds.). (2003). Teaching gender and multicultural awareness: Resources for the psychology classroom. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

The 25 chapters each address a unique topic relevant to teaching about diversity. Some chapters cover specific courses, others specific underrepresented groups, and others general topics such as difficult classroom dialogues, graduate clinical training, and continuing education.

Brown, D. L., Griffin-Fennell, F., & White-Johnson, R. (2012). Women’s mental health: Considering multiple dimensions of social identity and diversity.  In P. K. Lundberg-Love, K. L. Nadal, & M. A. Paludi (Eds.). Women and mental disorders (pp. 167-188). Santa Barbara, CA: Praege. 

This chapter provides an overview of the issues that impact the mental health of women across various aspects of their social identity, such as race, sexual orientation, income, and age.   The ways that these identities may differentially impact mental health expression, treatment, outcomes, and coping mechanisms are explored.

Bulmer, M., & Solomos, J. (2009). Gender, race and religion: Intersections and challenges. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 32, 215-217.

This issue offers a selection of papers that address the intersections between gender relations, race and religion. The papers are linked by a common concern to analyze from both a conceptual and a policy angle.

Burgess-Proctor, A. (2006). Intersections of race, class, gender, and crime: Future directions for feminist criminology. Feminist Criminology, 1, 27-47.

In this article, the author argues that the future of feminist criminology lies in the readiness to accept a theoretical framework that recognizes multiple, intersecting inequalities. The author also states that in order to gain an understanding of gender, crime, and justice, feminist criminologists have to examine linkages between inequality and crime using an intersectional theoretical framework.

Burman, E. (2003). From difference to intersectionality: Challenges and resources. European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counseling, and Health, 6, 293–398.

Critically evaluates current discourses on structural, especially racialized, inequalities through notions of difference as limited in their analysis of power relations and ability to transform power inequalities. Rather than difference, intersectionality--especially the intersection of 'race' and gender--is a more promising concept for critical thinking and practice.

Calasanti, T. M., & Slevin, K. F., (2001). Gender, social inequalities, and aging. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.

Written by sociologists, this book takes a feminist perspective on old age as a political location. It focuses on gender, aging, and social power, placing old persons within the intersections of other stratifying social identities. The authors also present a major critical analysis of ageism.

Calasanti, T. M., & Slevin, K. F. (Eds.). (2006). Age matters: Realigning feminist thinking. New York: Routledge.

These chapters highlight a neglected area of feminist scholarship: aging. We are now well informed about the complex ways gender shapes the lives of women and men, and we know how gendered power relations interface with race and ethnicity, class, and sexual orientation. Serious theorizing of old age in relation to gender and other social inequalities represents the next frontier of feminist scholarship.

Chernin, J. N., & Johnson, M. R. (2003). Affirmative psychotherapy and counseling for lesbians and gay men. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This book covers research, practice, and advocacy related to the special counseling needs of gays and lesbians. The authors apply universal counseling themes to lesbian and gay clients and discuss issues unique to lesbians and gay men, including the treatment of same-sex couples and families, ethnic minority issues, and living with HIV/AIDS.

Chung, R. C., & Bemak, F. P. (2012). Social justice counseling: The next steps beyond multiculturalism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.  

This text advocates and provides educational resources for a shift toward a social justice counseling approach  for mental health professionals.

Cole, E. R., Case, K. A., Rios, D., & Curtin, N. (2011). Understanding what students bring to the classroom: Moderators of the effects of diversity courses on student attitudes. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(4), 397-405. doi:10.1037/a0025433

Using a pre-post design, this study investigated the impact of student race and empathy on diversity course effectiveness.  Required diversity courses were found to increase students’ understanding of White privilege, acknowledgment of blatant racism, and intersectional consciousness. Diversity courses had a greater impact on intersectional consciousness for White students as compared with students of color. Empathy moderated the effect of diversity courses on outgroup comfort and willingness to act to promote diversity.

Coston, B. M., & Kimmel, M. (2012). Seeing privilege where it isn’t: Marginalized masculinities and the intersectionality of privilege. Journal of Social Issues, 68(1), 97-111. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2011.01738.x

Using a Symbolic Interactionist approach, this article challenges the all or nothing characterization of privilege in the literature by considering three domains in which male privilege is compromised by marginalization by other statuses: disability status, sexuality, and class.

Crowley, K. (2009). Pedagogical intersections of gender, race, and identity.  In R.A. R. Gurung, & L. R. Prieto (Eds.). Getting culture: incorporating diversity across the curriculum  (pp. 137-148) Sterling, VA: Stylus.

This chapter describes a feminist pedagogy approach to de-centering the classroom, promoting collaborative learning, recognizing the role of privilege in the construction of knowledge, encouraging personal and cultural transformation, and creating awareness of multiple intersecting dimensions of social identity.

Damaske, S. (2009). Brown suits need not apply: The intersection of race, gender, and class in institutional network building. Sociological Forum, 24, 402-424.

This study investigates network building and the transition from school to work in a university  career center. The author found that although network building ruled the overarching organizational goals, intersections of race, gender, and nationality marked  the hiring process. Staff members turned away both qualified and unqualified African-American and Latino men and women, while increasing access for White women and international male students, regardless of their qualifications.

Dottolo, A. L., & Stewart, A. J. (2008). ‘Don’t ever forget now, you’re a Black man in America’: Intersections of race, class and gender in encounters with the police. Sex Roles, 59, 350-364.

In this study, Black and White high school students responded to interview questions about race and racial identity. The authors found that questions about racial identity tapped into a conversation that stereotypes criminals as occupying social positions defined by race, class, and gender, particularly for African Americans. The author also discusses how the concept of intersectionality ignites the cultural construction of police encounters with citizens in terms of poor Black men, and the specific nature of the stories of racial identity told and not told by respondents with different race, class and gender identities.

Dressel, P., Minkler, M., & Yen, I. (2004). Gender, race, class, and aging: Advances and opportunities. In V. Navarro & C. Muntaner (Eds.), Political and economic determinants of population health and well-being: Controversies and developments (pp. 467–488). Amityville, NY: Baywood.

Examines limitations of between-group comparisons and discusses concepts of inclusiveness and interlocking oppressions/intersectionality and their utility for understanding the macro- and micro-level processes that shape oppression. Delineates promising new developments from sociology and epidemiology which can be applied to questions of aging and thereby help frame a more inclusive and critical gerontological agenda.

Enns, C. Z., & Sinacore, A. L. (2005). Teaching and social justice: Integrating multicultural and feminist theories in the classroom. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

This edited volume includes 11 chapters on defining multicultural feminism and integrating this approach into classroom teaching and professional practice.

Garnets, L., Hancock, K.A., Cochran, S.D., Goodchilds, J., and Peplau, L.A. (1991). Issues in psychotherapy with lesbians and gay men: A survey of psychologists. American Psychologist, 46, 964-972.

Research based on a survey of practicing psychologists about biased and beneficial forms of psychotherapy provided to lesbian and gay clients. Examples address assessment, intervention, identity, relationships, family matters, and therapist expertise.

Garrison, J., & Moon, D. (2004). The sociology of sexualities: Queer and beyond. Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 47–64.

Discusses queer theory's challenge to sexual dichotomizing and traces the workings of power through sexual categories. Examines the nature and effects of sexuality among multiple and intersecting systems of identity and oppression. Addresses the contributions of sociologists of sexuality toward understanding other social processes and the ongoing need to study sexuality.

Harper, G. W., Buhrke, R. A., Dworkin, S. H., Silverstein, L. B., & Doll, B. (2005). Lesbian and gay parenting. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbc/publications/pubsreports.html

Includes a summary of research findings on lesbian mothers, gay fathers, and their children; an annotated bibliography of the published psychological literature; and additional resources relevant to lesbian and gay parenting.

Herdt, G., & de Vries, B. (Eds.). (2004). Gay and lesbian aging: Research and future directions. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

The 10 chapters in this book cover a range of topics, including health, psychological well-being, relationships, and loneliness among older gay and lesbian persons, as well as research issues in the study of this population of elders.

Herek, G. M., Kimmel, D. C., Amaro, H., &; Melton, G. B. (1991). Avoiding heterosexual bias in psychological research. American Psychologist, 46, 957–963.

Defines heterosexist bias and provides guidelines on avoiding heterosexism in selection of research questions, sampling, operationalization of variables, data collection, protection of participants, and dissemination of results.

Holvino, E. (2010). Intersections: The simultaneity of race, gender and class in organization studies. Gender, Work and Organization, 17, 248-277.

This article proposes a new conceptualization of the intersections of race, gender and class as simultaneous process of identity in order to address the lack of attention to these intersections in feminist organizational studies. The author proposes theoretical and methodological strategies for researching the intersections of race, ethnicity, gender, class, nationality, and sexuality.

Konik, J., & Cortina, L. M. (2008). Policing gender at work: Intersections of harassment based on sex and sexuality. Social Justice Research, 21, 313-337.

The purpose of this study was to operationalize and test the linkage between oppressions based on gender and sexual orientation by modeling relationships between sexual harassment and heterosexist harassment. The authors proposed a three factor model of workplace harassment, comprising of sexualized harassment, gender harassment and heterosexist harassment. The authors found that the model was invariant by gender, but not sexual orientation. Implications of this study are also discussed.

Landrine, H. (Ed.). (1995). Bringing cultural diversity to feminist psychology: Theory, research, and practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Addresses the need to pay attention to cultural diversity among women and to integrate this diversity into teaching, theory building, research, and practice.

Lee, J.-A., & De Finney, S. (2004). Using popular theatre for engaging racialized minority girls in exploring questions of identity and belonging. Child and Youth Services, 26, 95–118.

Examines the use of popular theatre as a method of investigating racialized minority girls' processes of identity formation and experiences of exclusion and belonging in predominantly white, urban Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Offers suggestions to assist practitioners, researchers, and policy-makers who wish to engage with expressive and theatre-based methods.

Leigh, I. W. (Ed.). (1999). Psychotherapy with deaf clients from diverse groups. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Grounded in the cultural paradigm that views deaf people as making up a distinct cultural group rather than a group of persons with a disability, this book addresses cultural diversity within the deaf community and appropriate approaches to psychotherapy. Includes many case examples to assist those interested in mental health treatment of deaf persons.

Liu, W. M., Pickett, T., & Ivey, A. E. (2007). White middle-class privilege: Social class bias and implications for training and practice. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 35(4), 194-206. doi:10.1002/j.2161-1912.2007.tb00060.x

This article discusses social class and its intersection with multiple social identities in this exploration of the implications of privilege for counseling practice. 

Liu, W. M., Soleck, G., & Hopps, J. (2004). A new framework to understand social class in counseling: The Social Class Worldview Model and Modern Classism Theory. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32, 95-122.

Defines classism, shows how the notion of social class is socially constructed, and applies two new theories related to social class and classism to research topics and professional counseling.

McCammon, L. (1999). Introducing social stratification and inequality: An active learning technique. Teaching Sociology, 27, 44–54.

Discusses a method of collaborative learning that uses hypothetical families (small groups of students who assume roles within pre-determined family constellations) and scenario-based exercises as a means of helping students understand social stratification and inequality.

Mio, J. S., & Iwamasa, G. Y. (Eds.). (2003). Culturally diverse mental health: The challenges of research and resistance. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

A comprehensive book on multicultural mental health thataddresses the challenge of counseling diverse populations including multiracial, homosexual, geriatric, and disabled individuals. Old treatment models based on the mainstream majority no longer apply. This book includes research on diverse populations and addresses resistance to modifying old practices when working with these populations. Focus on Chapters 1–6.

Miville, M. L. & Ferguson, A. D. (2006). Intersections of sexism and heterosexism with racism: Therapeutic implications. In M. G. Constantine, & D. W. Sue (Eds.), Addressing racism: Facilitating cultural competence in mental health and educational settings (pp. 87-103). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

This chapter addresses considerations when providing therapy to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color. The authors first summarize the literature concerning the impact of racism, sexism and heterosexism and their intersections for LGB people of color. They then highlight therapeutic issues and barriers to consider that may arise from these intersections for clients as well as for mental health professionals.

McDermott, E. (2011). The world some have won: Sexuality, class and inequality. Sexualities, 14(1), 63-78. doi:10.1177/1363460710390566

This article uses empirical data and queer theory to explore the interaction of sexual identity and social class in young LGBT people’s post-compulsory schooling choices in the UK.

Nettles, R., & Balter, R. (2012). Multiple minority identities: Applications for practice, research, and training. New York, NY, US: Springer Publishing Co, New York, NY.

Through summaries of research and self-administered inventories, this book provides guidance to practitioners on strategies for considering multiple social identities and in assessing their own need for additional supervision, consultation, or diversity training.

Noonan, B. M., Gallor, S. M., & Hensler-McGinnis, N. F. (2004). Challenge and success: A qualitative study of the career development of highly achieving women with physical and
sensory disabilities. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51, 68–80.

This study reports on a qualitative study of women with disabilities. Presents a useful illustration of intersecting identities.

Pedersen, P. B. (2004). 110 experiences for multicultural learning. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Provides simulations, exercises, and structured role-playing activities that help instructors demonstrate the relevance of cultural diversity in psychological topics and foster appreciation of multicultural perspectives.

Pope-Davis, D. B., & Coleman, H. L. K. (Eds.). (2001). The intersection of race, class, and gender: Implications for multicultural counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Text presents an ecological, contextual model of behavior, using this model as a springboard for a new theory in multicultural counseling, which takes into consideration the specific issues of class, gender, and race in the counseling process. Advanced thinking and practice for practicing multicultural counselors and students in the field.

Pope-Davis, D. B., Toporek, R. L., Ligiero, D., Ortega, L., Bashshur, M. L., Brittan-Powell, C. S., et al. (2002). A qualitative study of clients’ perspectives of multicultural counseling competence. The Counseling Psychologist, 30, 355–393.

This article describes a model of clients' experiences in multicultural counseling and implications for therapists and research. In addition to insights for seasoned therapists, it presents beginning therapists with a more complex picture of clients.

Raskind, M., & Higgins, E. (1998). Assistive technology for postsecondary students with learning disabilities: An overview. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 27–40.

This article provides an overview of assistive technology for postsecondary students with LD, including the history of assistive technology service for these students, discussion of basic models of assistive technology service delivery, and descriptions of specific assistive technologies and their effectiveness.

Reid, P. T. (1994). Racism and sexism: Comparisons and conflicts. In E. Tobach & B. Rosoff (Eds.), Challenging racism and sexism: Alternatives to genetic explanations (pp. 93–121). New York: Feminist Press at The City University of New York.

The author reviews the similarities and differences between racism and sexism and the history of their effects on black women. She draws attention to the need to explicate the complex relationship between racism and sexism in social psychological research, particularly as it affects the development of educational and social policies.

Riggs, D. W. (2007). Recognizing race in LGBTQ psychology: Power, privilege and complicity. In V. Clarke & E. Peel (Eds.). Out in psychology: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and queer perspective(pp. 59-76). New York, NY: Wiley.

This chapter explores various strategies for addressing race in within LGBTQ psychological research and argues for greater attention to the role of oppression and White privilege as opposed to focusing on categories of racial identification.  

Schnitzer, P. K. (1996). “They don’t come in!” Stories told, lessons taught about poor families in therapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 572–582.

This article addresses myths about why poor individuals and families do not seek psychotherapy and uses research evidence as the basis of suggestions for improving mental health services to poor clients.

Schulz, A. J., Fruedenberg, N. & Daniels, J. (2006). Intersections of race, class, and gender in public health interventions. In A. J. Schulz, & L. Mullings (Eds.), Gender, race, class, & health: Intersectional approaches (pp. 371-393). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

This chapter examines two case studies that examine gender, race and class in the social production of health disparities. The case studies are used to consider the potential for scholars, community members and practitioners to intervene to promote greater equity in health. The case studies highlight the dynamic interplay of gender, race and class within two local contexts as they shape the conditions of people’s lives and contribute to the inequalities in health that now characterize the United States.

Shaw, L. R., Chan, F., & McMahon, B. T. (2012). Intersectionality and disability harassment: The interactive effects of disability, race, age, and gender. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 55(2), 82-91. doi:10.1177

Data from the National Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project was used to identify interactions between  disability, race, gender, and age in formal allegations of disability harassment. Findings indicate clusters of characteristics which significantly affect risk of experiencing disability harassment.

Silverstein, L. B. (2006). Integrating feminism and multiculturalism: Scientific fact or science fiction? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37, 21–28.

Competent clinical practice requires a complexity paradigm that encompasses the intersectionalities of class, gender, race/ethnicity, and other aspects that define an individual's subjective experience. The author provides clinical examples that illustrate how integrating multiculturalism and feminism can improve clinical practice.

Stevenson, M. R. (2002). Conceptualizing diversity in sexuality research. In M. W. Wiederman & B. E. Whitley, Jr. (Eds.), Handbook for conducting research on human sexuality (pp. 455–478). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Although focused on sexuality, this chapter considers how researchers can design qualitative and quantitative studies that minimize the effects of racism, sexism, ageism, and other prejudices.

Taylor, Y. (2009). Complexities and complications: Intersections of class and sexuality. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 13, 189-203.

This study explores questions raised by considering social class, gender, and sexuality within the same interconnecting research framework. The author utilizes a case study of working-class lesbian lives to bridge the gap between intersectionality theory and research.

Toporek, R. L., Gerstein, L., Fouad, N. A., Roysircar, G., & Israel T. (2006). Handbook of social justice in counseling psychology: Leadership, vision, and action. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

This edited book includes chapters regarding a variety of different oppressions such as heterosexism, classism, racism, sexism, poverty, etc. with models of systemic and community interventions.

Trimble, J. E., Stevenson, M. R., & Worell, J. P. (2004). Toward an inclusive psychology: Infusing the introductory psychology textbook with diversity content. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Guidelines written for teachers, textbook authors, and publishers about incorporating multicultural diversity into psychology teaching and research. Includes suggestions for aging, culture/ethnicity/race, disability, gender, and sexual orientation when teaching about 20 different psychology topics.

Whitley, B. E., Jr., & Kite, M. E. (2006). The psychology of prejudice and discrimination. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Provides an overview of the psychology factors influencing prejudice and discrimination. Topics include the nature and operation of stereotypes, old-fashioned and contemporary prejudice, individual differences and prejudice, the development of prejudice in children, the social context of prejudice, the relation of prejudice to discrimination, the experience of discrimination, and reducing prejudice and discrimination. Addresses not only racial/ethnic prejudice but also prejudice based on gender, sexual orientation, and age.

Wilson, B. D. M., Okwu, C., & Mills, S. A. (2011). Brief report: The relationship between multiple forms of oppression and subjective health among Black lesbian and bisexual women. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 15(1), 15-24. doi:10.1080/10894160.2010.508393

This study investigated the relationships between multiple forms of oppression and subjective physical health among Black lesbian and bisexual women. Both heterosexism and weight-based discrimination were found to have a significant, but different, relationships with subjective health.  The authors advocate for further research on the independent and intersectional effects of multiple forms of oppression on health.

Worell, J., & Johnson, N. G. (Eds.). (1997). Shaping the future of feminist psychology: Education, research, and practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

The authors in this edited volume discuss incorporation of feminist principles and practices in psychological research, practice, and education at the undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral levels.

Yuval-Davis, N., Anthias, F., & Kofman, E. (2005). Secure borders and safe haven and the gendered politics of belonging: Beyond social cohesion. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28, 513–535.

Focuses on contemporary gendered politics of migration and belonging in Britain. Examines migration and the construction of boundaries in Europe, the gendered implications of recent immigration policies, and the gendered nature of notions of “secure borders,”  “safe haven,” and “social cohesion.”

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